IELTS LISTENING – STAGES IN DOING A TOURISM CASE STUDY S3GT3

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IELTS LISTENING

STAGES IN DOING A TOURISM CASE STUDY

NATALIE :  Dave, I’m worried about our case study. I’ve done a bit of reading, but I’m not sure what’s involved in actually writing a case study – I missed the lecture where Dr Baker talked us through it.

DAVE:  OK, well it’s quite straightforward. We’ve got our focus – that’s tourism at the Horton Castle site. And you said you’d done some reading about it.

NATALIE :  Yes, I found some articles and made notes of the main points.

DAVE:   Did you remember to keep a record of where you got the information from?               

NATALIE :   Sure. I know what a pain it is when you forget that.

DAVE:  OK, so we can compare what we’ve read. Then we have to decide on a particular problem or need at our site. And then think about who we’re going to interview to get more information.

NATALIE:    OK. So who’d that be? The people who work there? And presumably some of the tourists too?

DAVE:  Yes, both those groups. So we’ll have to go to the site to do that, I suppose. But we might also do some of our interviewing away from the site – we could even contact some people here in the city. like administrators involved in overseeing tourism.

NATALIE:  OK. So we’ll need to think about our interview questions and fix times and places for the meetings. It’s all going to take a lot of time.

DAVE:  Mmm. And if we can, we should ask our interviewees if they can bring along some numerical data that we can add to support our fundings.

NATALIE:  And photographs?            ·

DAVE:   I think we have plenty of those already. But Dr Baker also said we have to establish with our interviewees whether we can identify them in our case study, or whether they want to be anonymous.

NATALIE:   Oh, I wouldn’t have thought of that. OK, once we’ve got all this information, I suppose we have to analyse it.

DAVE:   Yes, put it all together and choose what’s relevant to the problem we’re focusing on, and analyse that carefully to find out if we can identify any trends or regularities there. That’s the main thing at this stage, rather than concentrating on details or lots of facts.

NATALIE:    OK. And then once we’ve analysed that, what next?

DAVE:   Well, then we need to think about what we do with the data we’ve selected to make it as clear as possible to our readers. Things like graphs, or tables, or charts…

NATALIE:    Right.

DAVE:  Then the case study itself is mostly quite standard; we begin by presenting the problem, and giving some background, then go through the main sections, but the thing that surprised me is that in a normal report we’d end with some suggestions  to deal with the problem or need we identified. but in a case study we end up with a question or a series of questions to our readers. and they decide what ought to be

NATALIE: Oh, I hadn’t realized that. So basically, the problem we’re addressing in our case study of the Horton Castle site is why so few tourists are visiting it. And we’ll find out more from our interviews, but I did find one report on the internet that suggested that one reason might be because as far as transport goes, access is difficult.

DAVE:   I read that too, but that report was actually written ten years ago, when the road there was really bad, but that’s been improved now. And I think there’s plenty of  fascinating stuff there for a really good day out. but you’d never realize it from the castle website maybe that’s the problem.

NATALIE: Yes. it’s really dry and boring.

DAVE:   I read somewhere a suggestion that what the castle needs is a visitor center. So we could have a look for some information about that on the internet. What would we need to know?

NATALIE:    Well, who’d use it for a start. It’d be good to know what categories the visitors fell into too, like school parties or retired people, but I think we’d have to talk to staff to get that information.

DAVE:   OK. And as we’re thinking of suggesting a visitor center we’d also have to look at potential problems. I mean, obviously it wouldn’t be cheap to set up.

NATALIE:  No, but it could be a really good investment. And as it’s on a historical site it’d need to get special planning permission. I expect. That might be hard.

DAVE:  Right, especially as the only possible place for it would be at the entrance, and that’s right in front of the castle.

NATALIE: Mmm.

DAVE:  But it could be a good thing for the town of Horton. At present it’s a bit of a ghost town. Once they’ve left school and got any skills or qualifications. the young people all get out as fast as they can to get jobs in the city, and the only people left are children and those who’ve retired.

NATALIE: Right. Something else we could investigate would be the potential damage that tourists might cause to the castle site, I mean their environmental impact. At present the tourists can just wander round wherever they want, but if numbers increase there might have to be some restrictions. like sticking to marked ways. And there’d need to be guides and wardens around to make sure these were enforced.

DAVE:  Yes, we could look at that too. OK, well …

 

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IELTS LISTENING – Conflict at work S2GT4

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Conflict at work

Over the years, attitudes towards workers have changed considerably. After all, there was a time when workers had no rights at all, and laboured  in appalling conditions. Conditions have improved a lot, but conflict in the workplace is still common. And human resources managers nowadays need to be able to deal with it when necessary.What is conflict in the workplace? Definitions vary, but I’m taking it to refer to a whole range of behaviour that the victim finds unacceptable, from minor. harmless arguments to – at the opposite extreme – physical violence. Much of this is covered by the term bullying, by which I mean one or more people behaving abusively or aggressively against another who is in a weaker position. Although all behaviour like this is a form of conflict, not all conflict can be described in these terms. As with all human behaviour , there are numerous reasons for it. But often it’s caused by   someone who feels the need to show their superiority over someone else, in order to feel that they aren’t at the lowest level in a hierarchy or a group of people.In some cases one person simply dislikes the other. on the basis that the personality of one  is in some way incompatible with that of the other person. A general habit of optimism in one person could make them intolerant of a colleague who’s constantly pessimistic – not that that justifies treating them badly, of course.Some conflicts arise when people are more interested in promoting themselves and their team than in the company as a whole. These conflicts are called ‘structural’, and could.come about, for example, when a sales team believe they are the only people in the business who do any useful work, and look down on behind-the-scenes administrators.Conflict obviously affects the individuals concerned – the situation is likely to be very stressful for victims, resulting in their absence from work. possibly for months. For the company, if no effort is made to deal with conflict, it can spiral out of control, and even lead to the breakdown of the business.

Some interesting work with chief executives – CEO’s – has uncovered some of the reasons why they may treat colleagues badly. Many CEO’s combine two opposing characteristics: confidence – that is. the belief that they’re capable of great achievements – with a high level of anxiety. a fear of missing targets, whether set by themselves or by the directors of the company. This combination can make them respond badly to anyone who questions their decisions.In a high pressure work environment, such characteristics become problematic. And it’s particularly difficult to tackle the situation where colleagues. managers and board members are all trying to achieve their own visions. When they can’t agree on strategic issues and on where they see the business going. there are real problems.For managers at lower levels within the organisation, it might seem that an autocratic form of management – where the chief executive gives orders and everyone else has to obey -would see more conflict than others. Interestingly, though, a company with a more democratic  business model  can suffer  more  when uncertainty about who to report to leads to conflicting demands.

Now I’ll say a little about dealing with the type of conflict that has harmful effects. Of course the ideal is to prevent it arising in the first place. A good manager, at any level will make efforts to earn the respect of the people they work with, particularly those who report to them. That will involve politeness in all communications, and treating them as equals who happen to have a different role within the organisation.Sometimes, of course, conflict does occur, and can get out of hand. In such cases the human resources department often gets involved. However. if one of the parties in a conflict sees  human resources as simply a mouthpiece for the chief executive. then an external mediator might be able to help. By talking to both sides, and trying to find the truth of what’s been happening, they can build a clear picture of the situation, and give feedback that both sides will accept, precisely because they’re independent.

 

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IELTS WRITING – You travelled by plane last week and your suitcase was lost S21GT1

IELTS WRITING

You travelled by plane last week and your suitcase was lost. You have still heard nothing from the airline company.

Write to the airline and explain what happened. Describe your suitcase and tell them what was in it. Find out what they are going to do about it. 

You do NOT need to write your own address.

Begin your letter as follows:

Dear …………,

 

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IELTS READING – USE OF UNIVERSITY GROUNDS BY VEHICULAR TRAFFIC S20GT1

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USE OF UNIVERSITY GROUNDS BY VEHICULAR TRAFFIC

The University grounds are private. The University authorities only allow authorised members of the University, visitors and drivers of vehicles servicing the University to enter the grounds .

Members of staff who have paid the requisite fee and display the appropriate permit may bring a vehicle into the grounds. A University permit does not entitle them to park in Hall car parks however, unless authorised by the Warden of the Hall concerned.

Students may not bring vehicles into the grounds during the working day unless they have been given special permission by the Security Officer and have paid for and are displaying an appropriate entry permit. Students living in Halls of Residence must obtain permission from the Warden to keep a motor vehicle at their residence  .

Students are reminded Traffic that if they park a motor vehicle on University premises without a valid permit, they will be fined £20.

 

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