IELTS READING – The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism S18AT1

IELTS SIMULATOR ONLINE IELTS READING EASY DEMO - The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism The development of mass tourism

IELTS READING

The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism

A – The history of travel

Travel has existed since the beginning of time, when primitive man set out, often traversing great distances in search of game, which provided the food and clothing necessary for his survival. Throughout the course of history, people have travelled for purposes of trade, religious conviction, economic gain, war, migration and other equally compelling motivations.

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In the Roman era, wealthy aristocrats and high government officials also travelled for pleasure. Seaside resorts located at Pompeii and Herculaneum afforded citizens the opportunity to escape to their vacation villas in order to avoid the summer heat of Rome. Travel, except during the Dark Ages, has continued to grow and, throughout recorded history, has played a vital role in the development of civilisations and their economies.

B – The development of mass tourism

Q1 Tourism in the mass form as we know it today is a distinctly twentieth-century phenomenon. Historians suggest that the advent of mass tourism began in England during the industrial revolution with the rise of the middle class and the availability of relatively inexpensive transportation. The creation of the commercial airline industry following the Second World War and the subsequent development of the jet aircraft in the 1950s signalled the rapid growth and expansion of international travel. This growth led to the development of a major new industry: tourism. In turn, international tourism became the concern of a number of world governments since it not only provided new employment opportunities but also produced a means of earning foreign exchange.

C – Economic and social significance of tourism

Q2 Tourism today has grown significantly in both economic and social importance. In most industrialised countries over the past few years the fastest growth has been seen in the area of services. One of the largest segments of the service industry, although largely unrecognised as an entity in some of these countries, is travel and tourism. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (1992), Q5 travel and tourism is the largest industry in the world on virtually any economic measure including value-added capital investment, employment and tax contributions,. In 1992’ the industry’s gross output was estimated to be $3.5 trillion, over 12 per cent of all consumer spending. The travel and tourism industry is the world’s largest employer the almost 130 million jobs, or almost 7 per cent of all employees. This industry is the world’s leading industrial contributor, producing over 6 per cent of the world’s national product and accounting for capital investment in excess of $422 billion m direct indirect and personal taxes each year. Thus, tourism has a profound impact both on the world economy and, because of the educative effect of travel and the effects on employment, on society itself.

Q6 Tourism contributes over six per cent of the Australian gross national product. NOT GIVEN

D – Difficulty in recognising the economic effects of tourism

Q3 However, the major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden, or obscured, its economic impact are Q8 the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself. The travel industry includes: hotels, motels and other types of accommodation; restaurants and other food services; transportation services and facilities; amusements, attractions and other leisure facilities; gift shops and a large number of other enterprises. Since many of these businesses also serve local residents, the impact of spending by visitors can easily be overlooked or underestimated. In addition, Meis (1992) points out that the tourism industry involves concepts that have remained amorphous to both analysts and decision makers. Moreover, in all nations this problem has made it difficult for the industry to develop any type of reliable or credible tourism information base in order to estimate the contribution it makes to regional, national and global economies. However, the nature of this very diversity makes travel and tourism ideal vehicles for economic development in a wide variety of countries, regions or communities.

Q9 Visitor spending is always greater than the spending of residents in tourist areas. NOT GIVEN

E – The world impact of tourism

Once the exclusive province of the wealthy, travel and tourism have become an institutionalised way of life for most of the population. In fact, McIntosh and Goeldner (1990) suggest that Q4 tourism has become the largest commodity in international trade for many nations and, for a significant number of other countries, it ranks second or third. For example, tourism is the major Q11 source of income in Bermuda, Greece, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and most Caribbean countries. In addition, Hawkins and Ritchie, quoting from data published by the American Express Company, suggest that the travel and tourism industry is the number one ranked Q12 employer in the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, France, (the former) West Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States. However, Q10 because of problems of definition, which directly affect statistical measurement, it is not possible with any degree of certainty to provide precise, valid or reliable data about the extent of world-wide tourism participation or its economic impact. In many cases, similar difficulties arise when attempts are made to measure Q13 domestic tourism.

Q7 Tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation. NOT GIVEN

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IELTS WRITING – The Amount of Crime is Increasing S17GT2

IELTS SIMULATOR ONLINE IELTS WRITING - In many countries, the amount of crime is increasing. What do you think are the main causes of crime?
IELTS WRITING

The Amount of Crime is Increasing

In many countries, the amount of crime is increasing.

What do you think are the main causes of crime?

How can we deal with those causes?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

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IELTS READING – KAURIGUM S17GT5

IELTS SIMULATOR ONLINE IELTS READING EASY DEMO - KAURIGUM a piece of New Zealand’s history The kauri tree is a massive forest tree native to New Zealand

IELTS READING

KAURIGUM

a piece of New Zealand’s history

A. The kauri tree is a massive forest tree native to New Zealand. Kauri once formed vast forests over much of the north of the country. Whereas now it is the wood of the kauri which is an important natural resource, in the past it was the tree’s sap (the thick liquid which flows inside a tree) which, when hardened into gum, played an important role in New Zealand’s early history.

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Q3 After running from rips or tears in the bark of trees, the sap hardens to form the lumps of gum which eventually fall to the ground and are buried under layers of forest litter. The bark often splits where branches fork from the trunk, and gum accumulates there also. The early European settlers in New Zealand collected and sold the gum. Gum fresh from the tree was soft and of low value but most of the gum which was harvested had been buried for thousands of years. Q2 This gum came in a bewildering variety of colours, degree of transparency and hardness, depending on the length and location of burial, as well as the health of the original tree and the area of the bleeding. Highest quality gum was hard and bright and was usually found at shallow depth on the hills. 13 Lowest quality gum was soft, black or chalky and sugary and was usually found buried in swamps, where it had been in contact with water for a long time. Q13   Long periods in the sun or bush fires could transform dull, cloudy lumps into higher quality transparent gum.

B. Virtually all kauri gum was found in the regions of New Zealand where kauri forests grow today -from the middle of the North Island northwards. Q4 Q12 In Maori and early European times up until 1850, most gum collected was simply picked up from the ground, but, after that, the majority was recovered by digging.

C. Q7 The original inhabitants of New Zealand, the Maori, had experimented with kauri gum well before Europeans arrived at the beginning of the nineteenth century. They called it kapia, and found it of considerable use. Fresh gum from trees was prized for its chewing quality, as was buried gum when softened in water and mixed with the juice of a local plant. A piece of gum was often passed around from mouth to mouth when people gathered together until it was all gone, or when they tired of chewing, it was laid aside for future use. Kauri gum burns readily and was used by Maori people to light fires. Sometimes it was bound in grass, ignited and used as a torch by night fishermen to attract fish.

D. The first kauri gum to be exported from New Zealand was part of a cargo taken back to Australia and England by two early expeditions in 1814 and 1815. By the 1860s, kauri gum’s reputation was well established in the overseas markets and European immigrants were joining the Maoris in collecting gum on the hills of northern New Zealand. As the surface gum became more scarce, spades were used to dig up the buried ‘treasure’. Q8 The increasing number of diggers resulted in rapid growth ofthe kauri gum exports from 1,000 tons in 1860 to a maximum of over 101000 tons in 1900. For fifty years from about 1870 to 19201 the kauri gum industry was a major source of income for settlers in northern New Zealand. As these would-be farmers struggled to break in the land, many turned to gum-digging to earn enough money to support their families and pay for improvements to their farms until better times arrived. Q9 By the 1890s, there were 201000 people engaged in gum-digging. Although many of these, such as farmers, women and children, were only part-time diggers, nearly7,000 were full-timers. During times of economic difficulty, gum-digging was the only job available where the unemployed from many walks of life could earn a living, if they were prepared to work.

E. Q5 Q1 The first major commercial use of kauri gum was in the manufacture of high-grade furniture varnish, a kind of dear paint used to treat wood. The best and purest gum that was exported prior to 1910 was used in this way. Kauri gum was used in 70% of the oil varnishes being manufactured in England in the 1890s. It was favoured ahead of other gums because it was easier to process at lower temperatures. The cooler the process could be kept the better, as it meant a paler varnish could be produced. About 1910, kauri gum was found to be a very suitable ingredient in the production of some kinds of floor coverings such as linoleum. In this way, a use was found for the vast quantities of poorer quality and less pure gum, that had up till then been discarded as waste. Kauri gum’s importance in the manufacture of varnish and linoleum was displaced by synthetic alternatives in the 1930s.

F. Fossil kauri gum is rather soft and can be carved easily with a knife or polished with fine sandpaper. Q10 In the time of Queen Victoria of England (1837-1901), some pieces were made into fashionable amber beads that women wore a.round their necks. The occasional lump that contained preserved insects was prized for use in necklaces and bracelets. Many of the gum-diggers enjoyed the occasional spell of carving and produced a wide variety of small sculptured pieces. Many of these carvings can be seen today in local museums. Over the years, kauri gum has also been used in a number of minor products, such as an ingredient in marine glue and candles. Q6 Q11 In the last decades it has had a very limited use in the manufacture of extremely high-grade varnish for violins, but the gum of the magnificent kauri tree remains an important part of New Zealand’s history.

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IELTS READING – IFCES, the International Federation of Chemical Engineering Societies S17GT4

IELTS SIMULATOR GENERAL TRAINING READING – IFCES, the International Federation of Chemical Engineering Societies S17GT4 COMPUTER DELIVERED IELTS SIMULATION
IELTS READING

IFCES, the International Federation of Chemical Engineering Societies

Job Specification: Communications Manager

Contract: Permanent (with 3-month probationary period)

Reports to: Chief Executive

Hours: 9: l Sam – 5:30 pm with I hour for lunch

Holidays: 23 days per annum + statutory public holidays

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Job Summary

To raise the Q1 international profile of IFCES. To communicate our objectives, programmes and services to members, the chemical engineering community, the media and the wider public.

Key Responsibilities

•  Develop and implement a programme of communications to member associations, the chemical engineering industry, sponsors and the media

•  Plan and implement marketing strategies for all IFCES programmes including the World Chemical Engineering Congress

•  Write and edit copy for Q2 publications intended for internal and external use including Chemical Engineer Monthly

•  Work with design agencies, web developers and other external contractors to produce high quality corporate and marketing materials

•  Research, write and distribute news releases as required, often at short notice and under pressure

•  Deal with media enquiries and interview requests. Ensure that good relationships with both mainstream and chemical engineering media are developed and maintained

•  Assist in the production of presentations and speeches for board members

•  Ensure Q3 website content is up to date and consistent

•  Develop a consistent corporate identity and ensure its application by all member associations and partner organisations

•  Carry out specific duties and projects as directed from time co rime

Employee Specification Essential

•  Degree (any discipline)

•  Minimum 4 years’ experience in a communications role

•  Excellent copy writing skills with strong attention to derail, a keen sense of Q4 audience and an ability to tailor writing to its particular Q5 purpose

•  Demonstrable crack record of producing high quality corporate publications and marketing materials

•  Excellent interpersonal and organisational skills

•  Sound IT skills, including working knowledge of Microsoft Office applications

•  Willingness to crave! internationally

Desirable

•  Recognised Q6 post-graduate qualification in public relations / journalism / marketing communications

•  Knowledge of the global chemical engineering industry and the production of new materials in particular

•  Understanding of the concerns surrounding sustainability in chemical engineering

•  Ability to speak a foreign language

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