IELTS LISTENING – Monosodium Glutamate S23GT4

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Monsodium Glutamate

Lecturer 1: In today’s lecture, I’m going to talk about monosodium glutamate, or MSG, as it’s more commonly known. Now. MSG, as you probably know, is a flavour enhancer, which is used particularly in Chinese and Japanese cooking. Today I am going to explore why it is so popular in these……….

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cuisines and more importantly, how does it enhance the flavour of food? The main reason why MSG is more commonly used in Japanese meals is tradition. For many thousands of years, the Japanese have incorporated a type of seaweed known as kombu in their cooking as they discovered it had the ability to make food taste better. But it wasn’t until 19 0 wait that the ingredient in kombu, which was responsible for the improvement in flavour, was actually discovered to be glutamate by scientists working there from 19 0 wait until 1956 glutamate was produced commercially in Japan by a very slow and expensive means of extraction. It was in 1956 that the speed of the process was improved and industrial production increased dramatically and still continues to increase to this day. In fact, hundreds of thousands of tonnes of MSG are produced all over the world today. So what exactly is chemistry? Well, monosodium glutamate contains 78.2% glutamate, 12.2% sodium and 9.6% water. Glutamate is an amino acid that can be found naturally in all protein containing foods. Um, so this includes foods such as meat and cheese. It is widely known that Chinese and Japanese food contains MSG, but many people don’t seem to be aware that it is also used in foods and other parts of the world. For example, it is found in commercially made Italian pizzas in American fast food, and in Britain, MSG is used in things like potato crisps. So how exactly does MSG work well in the Western world, we commonly talk of four tastes, and I’m sure you’re all familiar with the concepts of sweet, sour, bitter and salt. Well, in 19 0 wait, he could not. A Ikeda identified 1/5 taste, and it is thought that MSG intensifies this naturally occurring taste in some food. It does make perfect evolutionary sense that we should have the ability to detect or taste glutamate because it is the amino acid, which is most common in natural foods. John Prescott, an associate professor at the University of Chicago, suggests that this fifth taste serves a purpose just as the other tastes, too. He suggests that it signals to us the presence of protein and food in the same way that sweetness indicates that a food contains energy giving carbohydrates. Bitterness, he says, alerts us to toxins in the food, while sour nous warns us of spoilage and saltiness signals the presence of minerals. So what else do we know about this fifth taste.

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IELTS LISTENING -HOMESTAY APPLICATION S23GT1

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HOMESTAY APPLICATION

Housing Officer: Yes. What can I do for you?

Keiko: My friend is in homestay and she really enjoys it. So I’d like to join a family as well.

Housing Officer: Okay, so let me get some details. What’s your name?

Keiko: My name is Keiko. You Tini.

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Housing Officer: Could you spell your family name for me?

Keiko: It’s you, Tini. That’s why you I c h I n i

Housing Officer: and your first name.

Keiko: It’s Keiko. K e I k o. That’s Keiko. You Jeannie.

Housing Officer: Okay. And your female and your nationality.

Keiko: I’m Japanese,

Housing Officer: Right? And Chrissy, your passport, please.

Keiko: Here it is.

Housing Officer: Okay. Your passport number is J 06 Double 37 And you’re how old?

Keiko: I’m 28 years old now.

Housing Officer: You live in one of the colleges. Which one?

Keiko: Willow College. Um Rym 21 c

Housing Officer: Right. 21. See Willow College on How long you planning on staying with homestay?

Keiko: About four months longer if I like it.

Housing Officer: And what course are you enrolled in?

Keiko: Well, I’ve been ruled for 20 weeks in the ah, um, advanced English studies because I need help with my racing, and I’m nearly at the end of my 1st 5 week course.

Housing Officer: Okay. Do you have any preference for a family with children or without children?

Keiko: I prefer. I mean, I like young children, but I’d like to be with older people, you know, adults. Someone around my age.

Housing Officer: Okay, Andi, what about pets?

Keiko: I am a veterinarian, so that’s fine. The more the better.

Housing Officer: All right, Now, what about you? Are you a vegetarian or do you have any special food requirements?

Keiko: No, I am not a vegetarian, but I don’t eat a lot of meat. I really like seafood. And what are your hobbies? I like reading and going to the movies.

Housing Officer: Do you play any sports?

Keiko: Yes. I joined the handball team, but I didn’t like that. So I stopped playing. Now I play tennis on the weekend with my friends.

Housing Officer: All right, let’s see. Name, age. Now the location. Are you familiar with the public transport system?

Keiko: No, I’m not, really. Because I have been living on campus. I’ve been to the city a few times on the bus, but they are always late.

Housing Officer: What about the trains?

Keiko: I like catching the train. They are much faster.

Housing Officer: Now. Let me go cheque on the computer and see who I’ve got. Listen, leave it with me. I’ll cheque my records on DH. I’ll give you details this afternoon.

Keiko: Thank you for helping me.

Housing Officer: It’s a pleasure, bye

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IELTS LISTENING – Geography Presentation S23GT3

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Geography Presentation

Student A: Remind me, Trevor, how long is the presentation?

Student B: Dr. White said three per hour.

Student A: So about 20 minutes.

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Student B: Well, it’ll be 15 minutes per presentation on five minutes for questions. And is this one gonna be assessed?

Student A: No, not this time around. Because it’s the 1st 1 You No good news. Well, what are we going to include?

Student B: Well, do you think we ought to give some historical background?

Student A: Oh, no, definitely. No, we won’t have time.

Student B: OK, but I think we ought to say something about the geographical location because not a lot of people know where the islands are.

Student A: Yes. Okay, I’ll take note. Shall I?

Student B: Yeah, that would be a help.

Student A: So, geographic coop location.

Student B: Then we would have given an overview of the whole education system.

Student A: Shouldn’t we say something about the economy, you know, agricultural, produce, minerals, and so forth?

Student B: Well, doctor, wife said we shouldn’t go into that sort of detail,

Student A: but it’s pretty important when you think about it, you know, because it does influence the education, sir. System.

Student B: Look, let’s think about that. Would later, shall we say, Let’s see how we doing for time.

Student A: Okay, So, general overview. Off education,

Student B: of course. And then the roll of English language?

Student A: No, that goes in the language policy seminar. Don’t you remember?

Student B: You sure?

Student A: Positive.

Student B: What? So those are the topics we’re going to be to be covering

Student A: We need to think about what to prepare. Dr. White said he wanted us to use plenty of visuals and things, and we might as well try them out when we’re not being assessed.

Student B: Well, the most important thing is thea overhead projector.

Student A: No problem. We’ll get that from the media room. Must remember to book it.

Student B: Well, we’ll need a map, of course,

Student A: probably to one of the island’s large scale on one of West Africa. Well, the West African one is no problem. There’s one in the resources room.

Student B: Oh, yeah, of course. The resources room. The island’s gonna be more of a problem.

Student A: Tell you what, There’s a very clear map of Santiago in that tourist brochure I showed you last week. Don’t you remember it? Oh, yeah, That’s right. We can just use the tourist Russia. We also need statistics on several different things.

Student B: Literacy writes?

Student A: Yes. And school places. How about the Encyclopaedia? No, not up to date. Enough. Mmm. Why don’t we call the embassy? Oh, someone’s enthusiastic. Well, if something’s worth doing, I know it’s worth doing well. Okay.

Student B: We confined our statistics on school places from them as well.

Student A: Much as well.

Student B: Look, Julie, it’s almost time for our tutorials. We can meet again on Monday, but we need to prepare some stuff before then.

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IELTS LISTENING – NATURAL RESERVE S23GT2

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NATURAL RESERVE

Guide : Welcome to all of you. Can everybody see and hear me? Good on Sally, your guide for this tour of the Bicentennial Park. I hope that you’re all wearing and most comfortable whose and that you can keep up the pace. So let’s get underway on our tour around this wonderful park. I’ll start today with some general background information.

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They used to be a lot of factories in this area until the 19 sixties. Creating the pact required the demolition of lots of derelict buildings on the site, So most of the exciting park space all around you was originally warehouses and store houses. The idea of building a public park here was first discussed when a property developer proposed ah, high rise housing development. But the local community wasn’t happy if the land was to be cleaned up. They wanted to use the site for recreation. Residents wanted open space for outdoor activities rather than housing or even an indoor sports conflict. Now to the bicentennial park itself. It has two areas on nature reserve and a formal part with man made features and gardens. The tool, blue and white building in front of us is called the Tower and is the centre point for the formal gardens. It stands 12 metres high, so follow me up the stairs to where we can take advantage of the fantastic views. Oh well, here we are at the top of the tower, and we’re gonna look at the view from each direction. Out to the east. The large buildings, about a kilometre away, are on the Olympic site. There’s an indoor arena for gymnastics, a stadium but track and field and a swimming pool for races and synchronised swimming and also diving. If you look carefully down there, you can see the train lines. The Olympic site has its own station to encourage the use of public transport. There is also a car park, but it only holds a limited number of cars. The formal pack has some specially created water features. If you look out here to the south, you can see a circular ornamental pond and around to the west. You can relax and sit on a bench to smell the flowers in the Rose Garden and finally up to the north. If you look in front of you. Now there’s a lake with a small island in the centre. You can hire rowing boats at the boat shed, which you can’t see from here. But if you look through the trees, you can see the cafe, which has a lovely views across the water. Okay, let’s climb down now. We will go now and have a look at the Nature reserve section of the park, which has opened up natural wit lend to the public. The mangroves have bean made more accessible to visitors by the boardwalk built during the packs upgrade. You’d think that people would come here to look at the unusual plant life of the area, but in fact it’s more often used for cycling and is very popular with the local clubs. This is the far end of the park, and over there you can see the frog pond, a natural feature here long before the park was designed Just next to it, we have our outdoor classroom, a favourite spot for school parties. The area is now most often used by primary schools for biology lessons. And finally, let’s passed by the water bird refuge. This area is in a sheltered part of the history. That’s why the packs viewing shelter is a favourite spot for bird watchers who can use it to spy through binoculars. You can watch a variety of water birds, but most visitors expect to see black swans when they come to the shelter. You might spot one yourself right now. Well, he we are back at our starting point. The visitors

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