IELTS READING – account for almost 27 per cent of the world’s energy needs S22GT5

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IELTS READING

Account for almost 27 per cent of the world’s energy needs

A.

Coal is expected to continue to account for almost 27 per cent of the world’s energy needs. However, with growing international awareness of pressures on the environment and the need to achieve sustainable development of energy resources, the way in which the resource is extracted, transported and used is critical.

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A wide range of pollution control devices and practices is in place at most modern mines and significant resources are spent on rehabilitating mined land. In addition, major research and development programmes are being devoted to lifting efficiencies and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases during coal consumption. Such measures are helping coal to maintain its status as a major supplier of the world’s energy needs.

B.

The coal industry has been targeted by its critics as a significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. However, the greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon involving the increase in global surface temperature due to the presence of greenhouse gases – water vapour, carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, methane and nitrous oxide – in the atmosphere. Without the greenhouse effect, the earth’s average surface temperature would be 33-35 degrees C lower, or -15 degrees C. Life on earth, as we know it today, would not be possible.

There is concern that this natural phenomenon is being altered by a greater build-up of gases from human activity, perhaps giving rise to additional warming and changes in the earth’s climate. This additional build-up and its forecast outcome has been called the enhanced greenhouse effect. Considerable uncertainty exists, however, about the enhanced greenhouse effect, particularly in relation to the extent and timing of any future increases in global temperature.

Greenhouse gases arise from a wide range of sources and their increasing concentration is largely related to the compound effects of increased population, improved living standards and changes in lifestyle. From a current base of 5 billion, the United Nations predicts that the global population may stabilise in the twenty-first century between 8 and 14 billion, with more than 90 per cent of the projected increase taking place in the world’s developing nations. The associated activities to support that growth, particularly to produce the required energy and food, will cause further increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge, therefore, is to attain a sustainable balance between population, economic growth and the environment.

The major greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the only major contributor to the greenhouse effect that does not occur naturally, coming from such sources as refrigeration, plastics and manufacture. Coal’s total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is thought to be about 18 per cent, with about half of this coming from electricity generation.

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IELTS LISTENING – Enquiry About Booking hotel Room For Event S21T1

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IELTS LISTENING

Enquiry About Booking hotel Room For Event

Andrew: Good morning, Claire House Hotel on Drew. Speaking on the events manager.

Samantha: Good morning, Andrew. My name’s Samantha. I’m arranging a party for my parents 50th wedding anniversary on bringing to ask about hiring a room sometime next September. Also, my parents and several of the guests will need accommodation.

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Andrew: Okay, I’m sure we can help you with that. Will you be having a sit down meal or a buffet?

Samantha: Probably sit down on DH.

Andrew: Do you know how many people will be

Samantha: around 80? I think.

Andrew: Well, we have two rooms that can hold that Number one is the Adelphia Room, that conceit 85 or hold over 100. If people are standing for a buffet, right. If you have live music, there’s room for four or five musicians in the gallery overlooking the room. Our guests usually appreciate the fact that the music can be loud enough for dancing, but not too loud for conversation.

Samantha: Yes, I really don’t like it when you can’t talk

Andrew: exactly. Now the Adelphia Room is at the back of the hotel, and there are French windows leading out onto the terrace. This has a beautiful display of pots of roses. At that time of the year,

Samantha: which direction does it face?

Andrew: South west, so that side of the hotel gets the sun in the afternoon and early evening. Very nice. From the terrace, you can see the area of trees within the grounds of the hotel, or you can stroll through there to the river. That’s on the far side so it isn’t visible from the hotel. OK, then, another option is the Carlton Room. This is a bit bigger. It can hold up to 110 people on DIT has the advantage of a stage, which is useful if you have any entertainment or indeed, a small band, conf it onto it.

Samantha: Andi, can you go outside from the room?

Andrew: No, The Carlton room is on the first floor, but on one side the windows look out onto the lake.

Samantha: Lovely. I think either of those rooms would be suitable.

Andrew: Can I tell you about some of the options we offer? In addition,

Samantha: please do

Andrew: as well as a meal. You can have an M. C. A master of ceremonies who will be with you throughout the party?

Samantha: What exactly is Thie emcees function?

I suppose they make a speech during the meal. If we need one, do they?

Andrew: That’s right. All our emcees, they’re trained as public speakers so they can easily get people’s attention. Many guests. They’re glad to have someone who can make themselves heard above the chatter, and they’re also your support. If anything goes wrong, the emcee will deal with it so you can relax.

Samantha: Great. I’ll need to ask you about food. But something else that’s important is accommodation. You obviously have rooms in the hotel, but do you also have any other accommodation like cabins, for example?

Andrew: Yes, there are five in the grounds, all self contained. They each sleep 2 to 4 people and have their own living room, bathroom and small kitchen.

Samantha: That sounds perfect for what we’ll need. Now you have various facilities, don’t you? Are they all included in the price of hiring the room, the pool, for instance?

Andrew: Normally you’d be able to use it, but it will be closed throughout September for refurbishment. I’m afraid the gym will be available, though at no extra charge. That’s open all day from six in the morning until midnight, right on the tennis courts. But there is a small additional payment for those. We have four courts, and it’s worth booking in advance if you possibly can, as they can be quite a long waiting list for them right now

Samantha: Could we discuss the food? This would be dinner around seven o’clock.

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IELTS LISTENING – Purpose Of Children’s Literature S21T3

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IELTS LISTENING

Purpose Of The Children’s Literature

Stephanie: Hello.

Trevor: Hello, Stephanie. You said you wanted to talk about the course I’m taking on literature of her children.

Stephanie: That’s right. I’m thinking of doing it next year, but I’d like to find out more about it first.

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Trevor: Okay, well, as you probably know, it’s a one year course. It’s divided into six modules, and you have to take all of them. One of the most interesting ones, for me at least, was about the purpose of children’s literature.

Stephanie: You mean whether it should just entertain children or should be educational as well,

Trevor: right on DH, whether the teaching should be factual, giving them information about the world or ethical teaching them values. hat’s fascinating is that the writer isn’t necessarily conscious of the message they’re conveying. For instance, a storey might show a child who has a problem as a result of not doing what an adult has told them to do, implying that children should always obey adults.

Stephanie: I see what you mean.

Trevor: That module made me realise how important storeys are. They can have a significant effect on children as they grow up. Actually, it inspired me to have a go at it myself just for my own interest. I know I can’t compete with the really popular storeys like the Harry Potter books. They’re very good, and even young kids like my seven year old niece love reading them.

Stephanie: I’m very interested in illustrations in storeys. Is that covered in the course?

Trevor: Yes, there’s a module on pictures on how they’re sometimes central to the storey.

Stephanie: That’s good. I remember some frightening ones I saw as a child, and I can still see them vividly in my mind. Two years later, peaches can be so powerful, just as powerful as words. I’ve always enjoyed drawing, so that’s the field I want to go into when I finish the course. I bet that module will be really helpful.

Trevor: I’m sure it will. We also studied comics in that module, but I’m not convinced of their value not compared with books One of the great things about words is that you use your imagination, but with a comic you don’t have to.

Stephanie: But children are so used to visual input on TV, video games and so on. There are plenty of kids. You wouldn’t even try to read a book, so I think comics conserve a really useful purpose.

Trevor: You mean it’s better to read a comic than not to read at all? Yes, I suppose you’re right. I just think it’s sad when children don’t read books.

Stephanie: What about books for girls on books for boys? Does the course go into that?

Trevor: Yes, there’s a module on it. For years, lots of storeys in English at least assumed that boys went out and did adventurous things, and girls stayed at home and played with dolls. I was amazed how many books were targeted at just one sex or the other. Of course, this reflects society as it is when the books are written.

Stephanie: That’s true. So it sounds as though you think it’s a good course.

Trevor: Have you been reading lots of children’s storeys to help you decide whether to take the course?

Stephanie: Yeah, have gone as far back in the late 17th century, though I know there were earlier children’s storeys.

Trevor: So does that mean you read Perot’s fairytales, Cinderella, the Sleeping Beauty and so on?

Stephanie: Yes, they must be important because no storeys of that type had been written before. These were the first. And then there’s the Swiss family Robinson.

Trevor: I haven’t read that

Stephanie: the English name makes it sound, So Robinson is the family surname. But a more accurate translation would be the Swiss Robinsons because it’s about a Swiss family who was shipwrecked like Robinson Crusoe in the novel of a century earlier. Well,

Trevor: I never

Stephanie: knew that. Have you read Hoffman’s The Nutcracker in The Mouse King?

Trevor: Wasn’t that the basis for Tchaikovsky’s ballet than that?

Stephanie: That’s right. It has been quite a bizarre elements.

Trevor: I hope you’ve read Oscar Wilde’s The Happy Prince. It’s probably my favourite children’s storey of all time.

Stephanie: Ah, mine, too, on it so surprising because World is best known for his place on most of them are very witty, but the Happy Prince is really moving. I struggled with Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, three long books and I gave up after one. It’s extremely

Trevor: popular, though.

Stephanie: Yeah, but where is something like the Happy Prince just carried me along with it. The Lord of the Rings took more effort than I was prepared to give it. I didn’t find

Trevor: that. I love it.

Stephanie: Mmm. Another one I’ve read is War Horse.

Trevor: Oh, yes. It’s about the first World War, isn’t it? Hardly what you’d expect for a children’s storey.

Stephanie: Exactly, But it’s

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IELTS WRITING – Local airport bigger and increase the number of flights S23GT1

IELTS WRITING

You are unhappy about a plan to make your local airport bigger and increase the number of flights.You live near the airport.

Write a letter to your local newspaper.In your letter

  • explain where you live
  • describe the problem
  • give reasons why you do not want his development.
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You do NOT need to write your own address.

Begin your letter as follows:

Dear Sir or Madam……….
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