IELTS LISTENING – The hunt for sunken settlements and ancient shipwrecks S21T4


The hunt for sunken settlements and ancient shipwrecks

Archaeology : In today’s class, I’m going to talk about marine Archaeology, the branch of archaeology focusing on human interaction with sea lakes and rivers. It’s the study of ships, cargoes, shipping facilities on other physical remains. I’ll give you an example. Then go one to show how this type of research is being transformed by the use of the latest technology.

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At least jam was a village on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, which seems to have been thriving until around seven thousand BC. The residents kept cattle caught fish and stored grain. They had wells for fresh water. Many of their houses were built around a courtyard and were constructed of stone. The village contained an impressive monument. Seven half tonne stones standing in a semi circle around the Q1 spring that might have been used for ceremonial purposes at Lidiane may have bean destroyed swiftly by a tsunami

or climate change may have caused glasses to melt on ancient sea levels to rise, flooding the village gradually.Whatever the cause, it now lies ten metres below the surface of the Mediterranean, buried under sand at the bottom of the sea.It’s being described as the largest and best preserved prehistoric settlement ever found on the seabed.For marine archaeologists, at Let Yam is a treasure trove.

Research on the building’s Q2 tools and the human remains has revealed how the bustling village once functioned and even what diseases some of its residents suffered from.But of course, this is only one small village, one window into a lost world. For a fuller picture, researchers need more sunken settlements, but the hard part is finding them. Underwater research used to require divers to find shipwrecks or artefacts. But in the second half of the twentieth century, various types of underwater vehicles were developed, some ancient controlled from a ship on the surface and some of them autonomous, which means they don’t need to be operated by a person, autonomous underwater vehicles or a you. These are used in the oil industry, for instance, to create Q3 maps of the sea bed before rigs and pipelines are installed

to navigate. They use senses such as compasses. And so no. Until relatively recently they were very expensive and so Q4 heavy that they had to be launched from a large vessel with a winch.But the latest a U V s, are much easier to manoeuvre.

They could be launched from the shore or a small ship, and they’re much cheaper, which makes them more ancient accessible to research teams. They’re also very sophisticated. They can communicate with each other on DH, for example, work out the most efficient way to survey a site or to find a particular objects on the sea bed

field tests show the approach can work. For example, in a trial in twenty fifteen three, a UV has searched for Rex but Marty Mummy, off the coast of Sicily.

The site is the final resting place of an ancient Roman ship, which sank in the sixth century While ferrying prefabricated Q5 marble elements for the construction of an early church, the EU VI is mapped the area in detail, finding other ships carrying columns of the same material.

Creating an Internet in the sea for a U visa to communicate is no easy matter. Why fi networks on land use electromagnetic waves, but in water these will only travel a few centimetres. Instead, a more complex mix of technologies is required for short distances. They you these share data using Q6 light, while acoustic waves were used to communicate over long distances.But more creative solutions are also being developed, where, in a UV working on the seabed offloads data to a second a UV, which then surfaces on beams the data home to the research team using a satellite.

There’s also a system that enables a UV is to share information from seabed scans and other data.So even a UV surveying the seabed finds an intriguing object. It can share the coordinates of the object that is its position with a nearby, a UV that carries superior Q7 cameras. And arrange for that a UV to make a closer inspection of the object.

Marine archaeologists are excited about the huge potential of these a U V s for their discipline.One site where they’re going to be deployed is the Gulf of Barati off the Italian coast in nineteen seventy for a two thousand year old Roman vessel was discovered here in eighteen metres of water when it sank. It was carrying Q8 medical goods in wooden or tin receptacles.

Its cargo gives us insight into the treatments available all those years ago, including tablets that are thought to have been dissolved to form a cleansing liquid for the Q9 eyes Other Roman ships went down nearby by taking their cargoes with um, some held huge pots made of terra cotta. Some were used for transporting cargoes of olive oil. The others held Q10 wine. In many cases, it’s only these containers that remain, while the wooden ships have bean buried under silt on the seabed. 

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IELTS LISTENING – Purpose Of The Children’s Literature S21T3


Purpose Of The Children’s Literature

Stephanie : Hello.

Trevor : Hello, Stephanie. You said you wanted to talk about the course I’m taking on literature of her children.

Stephanie : That’s right. I’m thinking of doing it next year, but I’d like to find out more about it first.

Trevor : Okay, well, as you probably know, it’s a one year course. It’s divided into six modules, and you have to take all of them. One of the most interesting ones, for me at least, was about the purpose of children’s literature.

Stephanie : You mean whether it should just entertain children or should be educational as well,

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Trevor : right on DH, whether Q1 the teaching should be factual, giving them information about the world or ethical teaching them values. That’s fascinating is that the writer isn’t necessarily conscious of the message they’re conveying. For instance, a story might show a child who has a problem as a result of not doing what an adult has told them to do, implying that children should always obey adults.

Stephanie : I see what you mean.

Trevor : That module made me realise how important stories are. Q2 They can have a significant effect on children as they grow up. Actually, it inspired me to have a go at it myself just for my own interest. I know I can’t compete with the really popular stories like the Harry Potter books. They’re very good, and even young kids like my seven year old niece love reading them.

Stephanie : Q3 I’m very interested in illustrations in stories. Is that covered in the course?

Trevor : Yes, there’s a module on pictures on how they’re sometimes central to the storey.

Stephanie : That’s good. I remember some frightening ones I saw as a child, and I can still see them vividly in my mind. Two years later, peaches can be so powerful, just as powerful as words. I’ve always enjoyed drawing, so that’s the field I want to go into when I finish the course. I bet that module will be really helpful.

Trevor : I’m sure it will. We also studied comics in that module, but I’m not convinced of their value not compared with books One of the great things about words is that you use your imagination, but with a comic you don’t have to.

Stephanie : But children are so used to visual input on TV, video games and so on. There are plenty of kids. You wouldn’t even try to read a book, so Q4 I think comics conserve a really useful purpose.

Trevor : You mean it’s better to read a comic than not to read at all? Yes, I suppose you’re right. I just think it’s sad when children don’t read books.

Stephanie : What about books for girls on books for boys? Does the course go into that?

Trevor : Yes, there’s a module on it. For years, lots of stories in English at least assumed that boys went out and did adventurous things, and girls stayed at home and played with dolls. Q5 I was amazed how many books were targeted at just one sex or the other. Of course, this reflects society as it is when the books are written.

Stephanie : That’s true. So it sounds as though you think it’s a good course.

Trevor : Have you been reading lots of children’s stories to help you decide whether to take the course?

Stephanie : Yeah, have gone as far back in the late 17th century, though I know there were earlier children’s stories.

Trevor : So does that mean you read Perrault’s fairy tales, Cinderella, the Sleeping Beauty and so on?

Stephanie : Yes, they must be important because Q6 no stories of that type had been written before. These were the first. And then there’s the Swiss family Robinson.

Trevor : I haven’t read that

Stephanie : the English name makes it sound, So Robinson is the family surname. But a more accurate translation would be the Swiss Robinsons because it’s about a Q7 Swiss family who was shipwrecked like Robinson Crusoe in the novel of a century earlier. Well,

Trevor : I never

Stephanie : knew that. Q8 Have you read Hoffman’s The Nutcracker in The Mouse King?

Trevor : Wasn’t that the basis for Tchaikovsky’s ballet than that?

Stephanie : That’s right. It has been quite a bizarre elements.

Trevor : I hope you’ve read Oscar Wilde’s The Happy Prince. It’s probably my favourite children’s storey of all time.

Stephanie : Ah, mine, too, on it so surprising because World is best known for his place on most of them are very witty, but the Happy Prince is really moving. I struggled with Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, three long books and I gave up after one. It’s extremely

Trevor : popular, though.

Stephanie : Yeah, but where is something like the Happy Prince just carried me along with it. Q9 The Lord of the Rings took more effort than I was prepared to give it. I didn’t find

Trevor : that. I love it.

Stephanie : Mmm. Another one I’ve read is War Horse.

Trevor : Oh, yes. Q10 It’s about the first World War, isn’t it? Hardly what you’d expect for a children’s storey.

Stephanie : Exactly, But it’s

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IELTS LISTENING – Enquiry About Booking hotel Room For Event S21T1


Enquiry About Booking hotel Room For Event

Andrew : Good morning, Claire House Hotel on Drew. Speaking on the events manager.

Samantha : Good morning, Andrew. My name’s Samantha. I’m arranging a party for my parents 50th wedding anniversary on bringing to ask about hiring a room sometime next September. Also, my parents and several of the guests will need accommodation.

Andrew : Okay, I’m sure we can help you with that. Will you be having a sit down meal or a buffet?

Samantha : Probably sit down on DH.

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Andrew : Do you know how many people will be

Samantha : around 80? I think.

Andrew : Well, we have two rooms that can hold that Number one is the Adelphia Room, that conceit Q1 85 or hold over 100. If people are standing for a buffet, right. If you have live music, there’s room for four or five musicians in the gallery overlooking the room. Our guests usually appreciate the fact that the music can be loud enough for dancing, but not too loud for conversation.

Samantha : Yes, I really don’t like it when you can’t talk

Andrew : exactly. Now the Adelphia Room is at the back of the hotel, and there are French windows leading out onto the terrace. This has a beautiful display of pots of Q2 roses. At that time of the year,

Samantha : which direction does it face?

Andrew : South west, so that side of the hotel gets the sun in the afternoon and early evening. Very nice. From the terrace, you can see the area of Q3 trees within the grounds of the hotel, or you can stroll through there to the river. That’s on the far side so it isn’t visible from the hotel. OK, then, another option is the Carlton Room. This is a bit bigger. It can hold up to 110 people on DIT has the advantage of a Q4 stage which is useful if you have any entertainment or indeed, a small band, conf it onto it.

Samantha : Andi, can you go outside from the room?

Andrew : No, The Carlton room is on the first floor, but on one side the windows look out onto the lake.

Samantha : Lovely. I think either of those rooms would be suitable.

Andrew : Can I tell you about some of the options we offer? In addition,

Samantha : please do

Andrew : as well as a meal. You can have an M. C. A master of ceremonies who will be with you throughout the party?

Samantha : What exactly is Thie emcees function?

I suppose they make a Q5 speech during the meal. If we need one, do they?

Andrew : That’s right. All our emcees, they’re trained as public speakers so they can easily get people’s attention. Many guests. They’re glad to have someone who can make themselves heard above the chatter, and they’re also your Q6 support. If anything goes wrong, the emcee will deal with it so you can relax.

Samantha : Great. I’ll need to ask you about food. But something else that’s important is accommodation. You obviously have rooms in the hotel, but do you also have any other accommodation like Q7 cabins, for example?

Andrew : Yes, there are five in the grounds, all self contained. They each sleep 2 to 4 people and have their own living room, bathroom and small kitchen.

Samantha : That sounds perfect for what we’ll need. Now you have various facilities, don’t you? Are they all included in the price of hiring the room, the pool, for instance?

Andrew : Q8 Normally you’d be able to use it, but it will be closed throughout September for refurbishment. I’m afraid Q9 the gym will be available, though at no extra charge. That’s open all day from six in the morning until midnight, right on Q10 the tennis courts. But there is a small additional payment for those. We have four courts, and it’s worth booking in advance if you possibly can, as they can be quite a long waiting list for them right now

Samantha : Could we discuss the food? This would be dinner around seven o’clock.

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IELTS SIMULATOR – Concerts In University Arts Festival S20T4


Concerts In University Arts Festival

Lecturer : As you will know, the university is planning an arts festival for later this year and here in the music department. We’ve planned three concerts. These will be public performances and the programme has just being finalised. The theme of the festival is links between the UK and Australia,and this is reflected in the music. Each concert will feature both British and Australian composers.

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I’ll tell you briefly about the Australian music, as you probably won’t be familiar with that. The first concert will include music by Liza Lim, who was born in Perth, western Australia, in 1966. As a child, Limb originally learned to play the piano like so many children and also the Q1 violin. But when she was 11 her teachers encouraged her to start composing. She found this was her real strength, and she studied and later taught composition both in Australia on DH in other countries as a composer, She has received commissions from numerous orchestras, other performers and festivals in several countries. Liza Limbs compositions are vibrant and full of Q2 energy, and she often explores Asian on Australian aboriginal cultural sources, including the native instrument, the Didgeridoo. This is featured in a work called The Compass. Her music is very expressive, so although it is Q3 complex, it has the power of connecting with audiences and performers alike. In the festival, we’re going to give a semi staged performance off the Oresteia. This is an Q4 opera in seven parts, based on the trilogy of ancient Greek tragedies by Aeschylus. Lim composed this when she was in her mid twenties, and he also wrote the text along with Barry Kaskey. It’s performed by six singers, a dancer andan Orchestra that, as well a standard orchestral instruments, includes electric guitar, onda, traditional Turkish stringed instrument. Lim wrote that because the stories in the tragedies are not easy to tell, the sound she creates are also Q5 disturbing and they include breathing, solving, laughing on whistling. The work lasts around 75 minutes. On the rest of the concert will consist of orchestral works by the British composers Wraith, Vaughan Williams, on DH Frederick Delius, moving on now to our second concert. This will begin with instrumental music by British composers Benjamin Britain on Judith, where after the interval will go to Australia for a piece by Ross Edwards, the tower off Remoteness.

According to Edwards, the inspiration for this piece came from nature when he was sitting alone in the dry bed of a creek, overshadowed by the leaves of palm trees listening to the birds and insects, the tower of remoteness he’s scored for piano and Q6 clarinet Edwards says he realised years after writing the piece that he had subconsciously modelled its opening phrase on a bird call. Ross Edwards was born in 1943 in Sydney, Australia, and studied at the Sydney Conservatory, um of music on the universities of Adelaide and Sydney. He’s well known in Australia, and in fact he’s one of the country’s most performed composers. He’s written a wide range of music, from symphonies and concertos to some composed specifically for children. Edwards, his music has been described as being deeply connected to Australia, and it could be regarded as a celebration of the Q7 diversity of cultures that Australia Khun B, proud off the last of the three Australian composers to be represented in our festival is called Vine, Born in 1950 for Vine like Liza, Limb comes from Perth, western Australia.

He took up the cornet at the age of five, switching to the piano. Five years later, however, he went to university to study Q8 physics before changing to composition. After graduating, he moved to Sydney and worked as a freelance pianist and composer. Before long, he had become prominent in Australia as a composer for Q9 dance and in fact has written 25 scores of that type. In our third concert, Vine will be represented by his music for the flag hand over ceremony of the Q10 Olympics, held in 1996. This seven minute orchestral piece was, of course, heard by millions of people worldwide, and we’ll hear it alongside works written by British composers Edward Elgar on DME or recently, Thomas Ad is.

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