IELTS LISTENING – Volcanic Activity and its Effect on the Atmosphere S35GT4


Volcanic Activity and its Effect on the Atmosphere

Lecturer :

Good morning, everyone in these environmental science lectures, I guess you’re all used to hearing about global warming. Well, I’m here today to talk to about one particular volcano and its effect on global cooling. I’ll begin by going back a little bit in time towards the middle of 1991. The second-largest volcanic eruption of the last century occurred in the Philippines, not far from the capital city Manila on the island of Luzon, Mount Pinna.

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Tubo belongs to a chain of volcanoes in the area, and this was by no means its first eruption.

There is evidence of eruptions from approximately 53000,5500 years ago. The events of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption began in July 1990 when a magnitude 7.8 earthquake occurred 100 kilometers northeast of the Pinna Tubo region. The sleeping giant was reawakened, but few people had any idea of what was in store for them. In mid-March 1991, many earthquakes were experienced around Mount Pinna Tubo and this is when volcano scientists or vulcanologists as they’re called, started their investigation of the mountain. Before the disaster, thousands of people lived in very close proximity to the mountain. On dawn April 2nd, small explosions from vents near the crater dusted their villages with ash. This resulted in the order for evacuations of 5000 people. Later that month.

Earthquakes and explosions continue to harass the residents and on June 5th, a Level three alert was issued for two weeks because of the possibility of a major eruption. However, the appearance of a large amount of lava protruding from the mountain on July 7th lead to the announcement of a Level five alert on June 9th, indicating an eruption in progress on evacuation area within 20 kilometers of the volcano was established and this time 25,000 people were evacuated. On the following day, Clark airbase was evacuated and the danger radius was extended to 30 kilometers from the volcano, resulting in the total evacuation of 58,000 people on June 15th. Just after midday, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo commenced and lasted for nine hours, causing numerous major earthquakes due to the collapse of the land at the top of the mountain and the creation of a huge caldera. What’s a counter? Er, I hear you say, Well, it’s obvious, really, with a huge eruption such as this, where enormous amounts of material have exploded into the air the same, it falls into what is now an empty chamber on DTH US forms a large crater. As luck would have it, as the eruption was taking place, a tropical storm was passing just to the northeast of Mount Pinna

Tubo, bringing a lot of rainfall to the area.

The dust and cinders that have been thrown up into the atmosphere, combined with the water vapor from the storm to cause a rainfall of Tefera that fell across the whole island of Luzon. Most of the people who perished during the eruption did so because of the weight of the ash. Collapsing roofs and killing the occupants of the house is if it hadn’t been for that passing storm, the death toll would certainly have been much lower. But that’s not all. Besides that Sh Mount Pinatubo expelled between 15 and 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide gas. Can you guess what happened next? Yes, the sulfur dioxide mixed with water and oxygen in the atmosphere to become sulfuric acid, which is a major contributor to ozone reduction. The eruption plume from Mount Pinatubo reached high into the atmosphere, attaining an altitude of 34 kilometers on the resulting aerosol cloud spread around the Earth in two weeks and had covered the planet within a year, enduring the years 1992 and 1993, the ozone hole situated over Antarctica reached an unprecedented size.

The cooling effects of this cloud over the Earth were remarkable. It reduced global temperatures considerably. In the United States, for example, we experienced our third, coldest and third wettest summer in 77 years. During 1992.

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IELTS LISTENING – Discussing a Science Project S35GT3


Discussing a Science Project

Bob : Hi, Julia.

Julia : Hi Bob. Thought about the science project yet?

Bob : Which one? The presentations are scheduled for next month.

Julia : The experiments that you and I are working on to demonstrate density, buoyancy and the compression of guesses.

Bob : That’ll be complicated.

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Julia : Well, it’s not supposed to be. It will be part of the making science simple series that’s being showcased next year and we have to be ready to demonstrate by the end of next week.

Bob : Oh well, simple, you say?

Julia : Yes, Not just the concept, but the materials, too. We have to use cheap, readily available common items. Expensive lab equipment is out of the question.

Bob : I remember something about using recycled or throwaway items, if possible anything portable that we can bring into the lab.

Julia : That’s right.

Bob : Well, any ideas for the project?

Julia : What about the classic Cartesian Diver?

Bob : Is that the same as a Cartesian Devil? The invention named after the famous French physicist Renedeca.

Julia : Yes, a long time ago. Superstitious people labeled it that because they couldn’t comprehend the scientific principles it demonstrated. They thought it was black magic.

Bob : How shall we do it?

Julia : By keeping it a simple, transparent and economical is possible. So to start with, open your pencil case and let’s have a look. Mmm. You haven’t got any

Bob : any What?

Julia : Paper clips.

Bob : Oh, there are lots of them in the bottom of my bag. They slip off I papers and collect in the bottom. Look, here’s half a dozen.

Julia : But they’re all big metal ones. I want little ones. Small, vinyl covered, multicolored ones.

Bob : Oh, I’ve got one or two of them, too.

Julia : Great and if we look around, especially on the floor, we’re bound to find a few more. See here.

Bob : What else do we need?

Julia : A small rubber bands.

Bob : Well, I’ve got one of those in my pocket.

Julia : No, not that kind. Let’s go and ask Tora.

Bob : why?

Julia : Those really small colored bands for making ponytails are ideal.

Bob : Hey, Tora!

Tora : Yes?

Julia : Have you got any spare rubber bands? Like the ones you fasten your hair with?

Tora : Oh, Heaps. Ah, whole packet full. Help yourselves.

Bob : Terrific. So far, it hasn’t cost us anything. What now?

Julia : Let’s go and rummage through the recycling bins. Besides Joe’s mini markets.

Bob : What for?

Julia : We want a two liter plastic soft drink bottle with lids.

Bob : Hey, I draw the line at sorting through other people’s rubbish, and we’re also not likely to find one with a lid.

Julia : Well, go into the store and buy two litres of soft drink.

Bob : What flavor?

Julia : It doesn’t matter what kind of drink you get. Just make sure it comes in a clear PET bottle.

Bob : Where you going?

Julia : To the cafeteria behind the resource center.

Bob : What for?

Julia : I’m after some straws.

Bob : I can get them from the shop when I buy the drink.

Julia : No, I’ve seen there’s there, the wax paper ones. We need clear plastic, and I know they’ve got them in the cafeteria. I’ll also see if I can get a tall plastic cup from there.

Bob : Good luck. Meet you back here in five minutes,

Julia : maybe longer, because I want to go over to my locker and get a wire coat hanger.

Bob : right? Have we got everything now?

Julia : I think so. I’ve got extras off most things. So don’t worry if this doesn’t work. First time.

Bob : Okay, assembly. Step one.

Julia : Take a straw and fold it in two. No, not like that. These plastic ones are quite hard to fold. Try pinching it in the middle. That should make it easier to bend. You may even have to bite it, but not too hard. You want a sharp crease, but you don’t want to break it.

Bob : How’s this?

Julia : Good, now? Second step, Rapper rubber bands several times around the ends to hold them together.

Bob : Then?

Julia : Add weight to the diver.

Bob : So this straw is the diver?

Julia : Yes. See how I’m pulling the outside end of a paper clip out of it. Now Hope the part I bent out into the rubber band that’s holding the straw together. No, not that way. It’ll fall off. That’s right. Turn it over. Now hook two or three more paper clips on. It’s hard to say how many will need. The idea is to get the diver to be almost all the way submerged, but not quite. We can put it in this cold cup of water to test it.

Bob : Mmm. What do you think? Too buoyant at another paperclip?

Julia : I think so. Okay. On to the next step. Have you got the empty bottle?

Bob : Not quite.

Julia : What do you mean?

Bob : Well, it’s not quite empty.

Julia : Pulls him into this cup for later. Good. Now fill the bottle with water. All the way to the top on will gently lower the diver in. Great. Now put the cap back on.

Bob : And then?

Julia : The final step is the demonstration of our experiment. You will see that when I squeeze the bottle, the diver sinks and when I let it go, the diver rises.

Bob : when you squeeze the air bubble trapped in the straw compresses and the water rushes in. Making it heavier, so it sinks and the reverse happens when you release the bottle. What’s the coat hanger for?

Julia : Oh that, if the experiment didn’t work the first time and a diver state on the bottom, we would have to fix it out with a piece of wire or a hoak of some kind, is best to be prepared……..

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IELTS LISTENING – Confidence and Gold Setting S35GT2


Confidence and Gold Setting

Counselor : Hello, I’m Joe from Health Service is on. I’m pleased to be here talking to you today.You’ve come here today to learn more about gaining confidence and setting goals. How many of you are truly positive thinkers? Positive thinking is the key to confidence. It doesn’t matter whether you are playing a sports match, facing an interview or preparing for an exam.

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If you apply positive thinking, you will gain confidence.This is the secrets positive thought, patterns, positivity leads to confidence, which in turn will optimize your performance. What is the one simple mental strategy that all confident people have in common? They concentrate on success, but don’t they ever fail? Don’t they make me steaks? What happens when things go wrong? The crucial difference is that they don’t dwell on failure. Everybody makes mistakes. I mean, how else do we learn? Rather than giving our poor becoming depressed? The best strategy is to register the mistake. Note what went wrong on determining what would have been a better way to act or what could have been done differently in order to achieve a more successful outcome.

Then move on. Yes, it raised the negative emotions. Allow those memories of defeat, frustration or dissatisfaction to fade and move forwards. Negativity erodes confidence. You need to put aside your disappointments and focus on successful outcomes. Oh, it’s not that easy. I can hear you saying. Well, no, it’s not easy to forget failure, but no one ever fails completely. So congratulate yourself on the areas where you did do well.

Speaker 1: Mentally replay the best bits, even if they’re only a small part

Now there are two more things you need to do. Firstly, rehearsal. Yes, you heard me rehearsal. Surely only actors in a play need to rehearse their parts. No, the truth is, we all need to rehearse. This is a sure-fire way to build confidence before the match. Presentation the exam or whatever. Imagine yourself performing successfully in that particular situation. And here’s the second tip. Look confident that will always give you an extra physiological advantage so you can see that mind and bodywork together on this. you have to think and act positively.

Let’s talk a bit more about how to look confident. If you have to overcome a challenge, get rid of that anxious expression and rigid posture, those downcast eyes, and nervous gestures. Even if you don’t feel very self-assured, you can still give the appearance of confidence. Stand tall, hold your head up, make full eye contact and keep an open expression. Replace the frown with a smile if you can manage it and those hunched shoulders relax those shoulder muscles if you need to take a deep breath and stretch to release pent up anxiety and tension. What if you have to make a difficult phone call, for example? Nobody can actually see you, so does it matter what you look like? Yes, it does.

Practicing positive body language will help you cross the threshold into a confident mood before we move on to talk about gold setting. It may surprise you to know that once you have set a goal in life, the brain responds with a burst of activity, which we experience as that’s right happiness on what happens when the goal is achieved.

yes, there is another burst of activity and another feeling of happiness. As you can see, the recipe for a happy life is to maintain a positive attitude and keep setting and achieving your goals. So whatever you go, whatever it is that you’re aiming for a new job losing weight’s giving up, smoking graduation, you need an appropriate on by appropriate I mean achievable goal. That’s the first step. The next thing to consider his motivation. How do you get going?

Well, it’s more likely to motivate you if you think of the rewards of success rather than focus on failure or what you might lose. So you need to establish your incentives. After that, you’ll have to work out the various stages and phases that you’ll need to go through along the way and prepare for each one of them. If you’re not naturally motivated, keep the targets small and achievable. But it really is important to ensure you collect the resources to accomplish the various steps.

If you have performed that particular task before you may already have the resources or at least know where to get them from. If not, ask someone who has already succeeded. When you have got this far, the next stage is obvious. Yes, you have to take the first step. That’s not quite all there is to it, though. The final thing is to remember to keep track of what you accomplished. In other words, be sure to maintain a progress log. That way you could look back your previous small successes and what your progresses along the way to achieving your goal.

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IELTS LISTENING – Tauber Insurance Company S35GT1


Tauber Insurance Company

Agent : Good morning, Tauber Insurance Company. How can I help you?

Women : Good morning. I want to alter my insurance policy.

Agent : Is that for your house contents or vehicle?

Women : My vehicle?

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Agent : Can you give me the number of the policy, please?

Women : Certainly. I have it here in front of me. It’s ZQW5009

Agent : And what make and model of car is it?

Women : It’s a Masda. A Masda Marvel

Agent : And what’s the cc rating?

Women : Sorry. What do you mean?

Agent : How big is the engine? Is it 1500 or 1800cc, for example?

Women : Oh, that it’s actually much bigger than that. It’s 2500cc.

Agent : Thank you. Now I just have to ask you a few questions to verify your identity. What name is the policy under

Women : Haith Coats.

Agent : Let me just bring that up on the computer. Yes. Can I just confirm your first name, please?

Women : Well, my first name is Lisa, but I’m known by my middle name Marie.

Agent : Right. I see both here, but Lisa is the one I want for id purposes and your date of birth, Lisa. I mean, Marie.

Women : The 22nd of August 1955

Agent : Correct. Just one more question before we get started. Can you remember the password on this policy?
Women : oh dear! I didn’t know I had a password on it.

Agent : Everyone has a password. Would you like to take a guess? Possibly.

Women: It’s my mother’s name

Agent : And what would that be?

Women: Sofia.

Agent : Sorry. Guess again.

Women : All right. Oh, I remember now. It’s my grandfather’s name. Jack.

Agent : Yes. Followed by some numbers.

Women : 1897 Right.

Agent : Correct. Now we can get down to business. What exactly do you want to change?

Women : Well, a couple of things. Firstly, I think it’s overvalued at the moment. Can we reduce the value by $5000?

Agent : You mean bring it down to $15,000?

Women : Yes. I’m sure it’s lost quite a bit of value over the past year.

Agent : Done. Now, what’s the other thing?Women : Well, I want to add the name of another driver to my insurance policy. Who is it? His name is Samuel Michaels.

Agent : He doesn’t have the same family name is you?

Women : No, he doesn’t. Is that a problem?

Agent : No, it shouldn’t be as long as he’s over the age of 25 but we find it easier to get approval for family members.

Women : Oh, he ISS family. He is married to my daughter. He is my son in law and he is 28 infact.

Agent : Good on. What would he be using the car for? Would it be business or social purposes?

Women : Not really. You see, I’ve injured my right arm and I’m having difficulty driving. It’s not an automatic. I have to use the gear stick and Sam, that is Samuel offered to drive me to my appointments and so on. He’s a good driver and I feel safe with him. But I’d like to know that the car is still insured with him behind the wheel.

Agent : So that would be family reasons, then?

Women : Yes, I think so. Well, my premium go up.

Agent : No, as long as you can provide us with a photocopy of his driver’s license. A true copy. You know what I mean. You’ll have to get someone from the Department of Transport to sign it, saying that he’s seen the original document.

Women : I think we can manage that without any difficulty.

Agent : Oh, and while he’s at the department, he should ask them for a record of any driving offenses, demerit points, that kind of thing. Only for the last five years, though. We’re not interested in anything beyond that. But it’s important that he has a clean record for the five previous years.

Women : Oh, I’m sure that won’t be a problem. Is there anything else you need?

Agent : Just the date for when you’d like this to take fact.

Women : Today, if that’s possible?

Agent : Yes, we can issue temporary cover from today’s date, but full cover won’t apply until we’ve received the paperwork and it’s being approved.

Women : What exactly is temporary?

Agent : He’ll be covered for two full weeks, but it will lapse after that time. If there’s any problem with his credentials….

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