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IELTS SIMULATOR ONLINE IELTS READING EASY DEMO - KAURIGUM a piece of New Zealand’s history The kauri tree is a massive forest tree native to New Zealand



a piece of New Zealand’s history

A. The kauri tree is a massive forest tree native to New Zealand. Kauri once formed vast forests over much of the north of the country. Whereas now it is the wood of the kauri which is an important natural resource, in the past it was the tree’s sap (the thick liquid which flows inside a tree) which, when hardened into gum, played an important role in New Zealand’s early history.

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Q3 After running from rips or tears in the bark of trees, the sap hardens to form the lumps of gum which eventually fall to the ground and are buried under layers of forest litter. The bark often splits where branches fork from the trunk, and gum accumulates there also. The early European settlers in New Zealand collected and sold the gum. Gum fresh from the tree was soft and of low value but most of the gum which was harvested had been buried for thousands of years. Q2 This gum came in a bewildering variety of colours, degree of transparency and hardness, depending on the length and location of burial, as well as the health of the original tree and the area of the bleeding. Highest quality gum was hard and bright and was usually found at shallow depth on the hills. 13 Lowest quality gum was soft, black or chalky and sugary and was usually found buried in swamps, where it had been in contact with water for a long time. Q13   Long periods in the sun or bush fires could transform dull, cloudy lumps into higher quality transparent gum.

B. Virtually all kauri gum was found in the regions of New Zealand where kauri forests grow today -from the middle of the North Island northwards. Q4 Q12 In Maori and early European times up until 1850, most gum collected was simply picked up from the ground, but, after that, the majority was recovered by digging.

C. Q7 The original inhabitants of New Zealand, the Maori, had experimented with kauri gum well before Europeans arrived at the beginning of the nineteenth century. They called it kapia, and found it of considerable use. Fresh gum from trees was prized for its chewing quality, as was buried gum when softened in water and mixed with the juice of a local plant. A piece of gum was often passed around from mouth to mouth when people gathered together until it was all gone, or when they tired of chewing, it was laid aside for future use. Kauri gum burns readily and was used by Maori people to light fires. Sometimes it was bound in grass, ignited and used as a torch by night fishermen to attract fish.

D. The first kauri gum to be exported from New Zealand was part of a cargo taken back to Australia and England by two early expeditions in 1814 and 1815. By the 1860s, kauri gum’s reputation was well established in the overseas markets and European immigrants were joining the Maoris in collecting gum on the hills of northern New Zealand. As the surface gum became more scarce, spades were used to dig up the buried ‘treasure’. Q8 The increasing number of diggers resulted in rapid growth ofthe kauri gum exports from 1,000 tons in 1860 to a maximum of over 101000 tons in 1900. For fifty years from about 1870 to 19201 the kauri gum industry was a major source of income for settlers in northern New Zealand. As these would-be farmers struggled to break in the land, many turned to gum-digging to earn enough money to support their families and pay for improvements to their farms until better times arrived. Q9 By the 1890s, there were 201000 people engaged in gum-digging. Although many of these, such as farmers, women and children, were only part-time diggers, nearly7,000 were full-timers. During times of economic difficulty, gum-digging was the only job available where the unemployed from many walks of life could earn a living, if they were prepared to work.

E. Q5 Q1 The first major commercial use of kauri gum was in the manufacture of high-grade furniture varnish, a kind of dear paint used to treat wood. The best and purest gum that was exported prior to 1910 was used in this way. Kauri gum was used in 70% of the oil varnishes being manufactured in England in the 1890s. It was favoured ahead of other gums because it was easier to process at lower temperatures. The cooler the process could be kept the better, as it meant a paler varnish could be produced. About 1910, kauri gum was found to be a very suitable ingredient in the production of some kinds of floor coverings such as linoleum. In this way, a use was found for the vast quantities of poorer quality and less pure gum, that had up till then been discarded as waste. Kauri gum’s importance in the manufacture of varnish and linoleum was displaced by synthetic alternatives in the 1930s.

F. Fossil kauri gum is rather soft and can be carved easily with a knife or polished with fine sandpaper. Q10 In the time of Queen Victoria of England (1837-1901), some pieces were made into fashionable amber beads that women wore a.round their necks. The occasional lump that contained preserved insects was prized for use in necklaces and bracelets. Many of the gum-diggers enjoyed the occasional spell of carving and produced a wide variety of small sculptured pieces. Many of these carvings can be seen today in local museums. Over the years, kauri gum has also been used in a number of minor products, such as an ingredient in marine glue and candles. Q6 Q11 In the last decades it has had a very limited use in the manufacture of extremely high-grade varnish for violins, but the gum of the magnificent kauri tree remains an important part of New Zealand’s history.

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IELTS READING – IFCES, the International Federation of Chemical Engineering Societies S17GT4


IFCES, the International Federation of Chemical Engineering Societies

Job Specification: Communications Manager

Contract: Permanent (with 3-month probationary period)

Reports to: Chief Executive

Hours: 9: l Sam – 5:30 pm with I hour for lunch

Holidays: 23 days per annum + statutory public holidays

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Job Summary

To raise the Q1 international profile of IFCES. To communicate our objectives, programmes and services to members, the chemical engineering community, the media and the wider public.

Key Responsibilities

•  Develop and implement a programme of communications to member associations, the chemical engineering industry, sponsors and the media

•  Plan and implement marketing strategies for all IFCES programmes including the World Chemical Engineering Congress

•  Write and edit copy for Q2 publications intended for internal and external use including Chemical Engineer Monthly

•  Work with design agencies, web developers and other external contractors to produce high quality corporate and marketing materials

•  Research, write and distribute news releases as required, often at short notice and under pressure

•  Deal with media enquiries and interview requests. Ensure that good relationships with both mainstream and chemical engineering media are developed and maintained

•  Assist in the production of presentations and speeches for board members

•  Ensure Q3 website content is up to date and consistent

•  Develop a consistent corporate identity and ensure its application by all member associations and partner organisations

•  Carry out specific duties and projects as directed from time co rime

Employee Specification Essential

•  Degree (any discipline)

•  Minimum 4 years’ experience in a communications role

•  Excellent copy writing skills with strong attention to derail, a keen sense of Q4 audience and an ability to tailor writing to its particular Q5 purpose

•  Demonstrable crack record of producing high quality corporate publications and marketing materials

•  Excellent interpersonal and organisational skills

•  Sound IT skills, including working knowledge of Microsoft Office applications

•  Willingness to crave! internationally


•  Recognised Q6 post-graduate qualification in public relations / journalism / marketing communications

•  Knowledge of the global chemical engineering industry and the production of new materials in particular

•  Understanding of the concerns surrounding sustainability in chemical engineering

•  Ability to speak a foreign language

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When you have set up your own business, you must, of course, start selling your goods or services. One way is by using direct mail – in other words, sending a sales letter (or email) directly to companies that might want to do business with you.

One important factor is your mailing list – that is, who you contact.

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You can build this up from your own market research, existing clients and advertising responses, or you can contact list brokers and rent or buy a compiled list. If you are contacting a business, it is important to address the letter to the Q1 decision maker, ideally by name or at least by job title.

While the desirability and price of the product on offer will obviously influence sales, you also need to gain the maximum Q2 impact from your sales letter. To achieve that, bear the following points in mind:

•  You have no more than two seconds from when the reader starts the letter to convince them to continue. If you fail, they will throw it away. The Q3 opening is crucial to attract their attention. And so that they don’t lose interest, avoid having too much text.

•  Try to send each mailing in a Q4 white envelope. It might be cheaper to use a brown envelope but it doesn’t make for such good presentation.

•  Include a Q5 brochure Depending on the volume and on whether you can afford the cost, try to use at least two-colour printing for this. If practicable, it may be worth enclosing a free Q6 sample – this is a much greater incentive than photographs.

•  However interested your potential clients are in buying, they will only do so if it can be done easily. So, include an order form (and of course details of how to return it) with your letter.

•  When you receive your replies, assess your Q7 response rate and monitor the sales. If necessary, the sales letter can then be amended to attract other clients on subsequent mail shots; make sure each different letter is coded so that monitoring is easy and effective.

•  Ensure that each reply is dealt with quickly and professionally. If further details are requested, these must be sent out promptly. There is no point in encouraging potential customers to contact you if your service is slow or non-existent.

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IELTS READING – Sydney Opera House Tours S17GT2

IELTS SIMULATOR ONLINE IELTS READING EASY DEMO - Sydney Opera House Tours The Essential Tour brings to life the story behind the design


Sydney Opera House Tours

We offer three different tours of this iconic building.

A. The Essential Tour brings to life the story behind the design and construction of one of the world’s most famous landmarks. Using interactive audio-visual technology, your guide will take you on a memorable journey inside the youngest building ever to be World Heritage listed.

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B. Afterwards, why not stay around and eat at the Studio Cafe, with its modern Australian menu? Not only can you enjoy the best views in Sydney, you can claim a 20% reduction on the total cost of your meal. (Don’t forget to show your ticket in order to claim your discount.)

C. Languages: English, French, German

Takes place: Daily between 9 am and 5 pm

Q5 Prices: Adults $35 I Online $29.75

Q1 Concessions: Australian seniors and

pensioners; students and children of 16 and under $24.50.

Prior bookings are not essential.

D. The Backstage Tour gives you backstage access co the Sydney Opera House. It is a unique opportunity to experience the real-life dramas behind the stage! Q3 You might even get to stand on the concert hall stage, take up a conductor’s baton in the orchestra pit and imagine you are leading the performance. You will also get to see inside the stars’ dressing rooms. The tour concludes with a complimentary breakfast in the Green Room, the private dining area of performers past and present.

E. Takes place: Daily at 7 am

Prices: $155. No concessions.

Q4 To purchase: Bookings are essential.

Limited to 8 people per tour.

Q6 Online sales expire at 4.30 pm two days prior.

Notes: The tour includes up to 300 steps. Q2 Flat, rubber-soled shoes must be worn. For safety reasons, children of 12 years old and under are not permitted.

F. Opera High Tea consists of a tour where you will walk in the footsteps of world-class singers, dancers and musicians, followed by fine food and music in the spectacular surroundings of the Bennelong Dining Room. What could be better than a treat of delicious light snacks and soft drinks followed by a live recital by a leading Australian singer? An unforgettable treat for young and old!

G. Takes place: Every second Wednesday, 2 pm

Q7 Duration: 1.5 hours

Prices: $145 per person

Book online or visit the Guided Tours Desk.

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