The IELTS Academic test is for people applying for higher education.
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IELTS READING – Young Children’s Sense of Identity S48AT2


Young Children’s Sense of Identity

A. A sense of ‘self’ develops in young children by degrees. The process can usefully be thought of in terms of the gradual emergence of two somewhat separate features: the self as a subject, and the self as an object. William James introduced the distinction in 1892, and contemporaries of his, such as Charles Cooley, added to the developing debate. Ever since then psychologists have continued building on the theory.

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IELTS READING – Tidal Power S47AT2


Tidal Power

Undersea turbines which produce electricity from the tides are set to become an important source of renewable energy for Britain. It is still too early to predict the extent of the impact they may have. but all the signs are that they will play a significant role in the future.

A. Operating on the same principle as wind turbines, the power in sea turbines comes from tidal currents which turn blades similar to ships’ propellers, but, unlike the wind, Q18 the tides are predictable and the power input is constant. The technology raises the prospect of Britain becoming self-sufficient in renewable energy and Q19 drastically reducing its carbon dioxide emissions, if tide, wind, and wave power are all developed. Britain would be able to Q20 close gas, coal and nuclear power plants and Q21 export renewable power to other parts of Europe. Q16 Unlike wind power which Britain originally developed and then abandoned for 20 years allowing the Dutch to make it a major industry, undersea turbines could become a big export earner to island nations such as Japan and New Zealand.

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IELTS READING – The Development of Museums S48AT3


The Development of Museums

A. The conviction that historical relics provide infallible testimony about the past is rooted in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when science was regarded as objective and value free. As one writer observes: ‘Although it is now evident that artifacts are as easily altered as chronicles, public faith in their veracity endures: a tangible relic seems ipso facto real! Such conviction was, until recently, reflected in museum displays. Q31 Museums used to look — and some still do — much like storage rooms of objects packed together in showcases: good for scholars who wanted to study the subtle differences in design, but not for the ordinary visitor. to whom It all looked alike. Similarly, the information accompanying the objects often made little sense to the lay visitor. The content and format of explanations dated back to a time when the museum was the exclusive domain of the scientific researcher.

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IELTS READING – Information Theory the big idea S47AT3


Information Theory – the big idea

Information theory lies at the heart of everything – from DVD players and the genetic code of DNA to the physics of the universe at its most fundamental. it has been central to the development of the science of communication, which enables data to be sent electronically and has therefore had a major impact on our lives.

A. Q31 In April 2002 an event took place which demonstrated one of the many applications of information theory. The space probe, Voyager I, launched in 1977, had sent back spectacular images of Q33 Jupiter and Saturn and then soared out of the Q34 Solar System on a one-way mission to the stars. After 25 years of exposure to the freezing temperatures of deep space, the probe was beginning to show its age, Q35 Sensors and circuits were on the brink of failing and NASA experts realized that they had to do something or lose contact with their probe forever. The solution was to get a message to Voyager I to instruct it to use Q36 spares to change the failing parts. With the probe 12 billion kilometers from Earth, this was not an easy task. By means of a Q37 radio dish belonging to NASA’s Deep Space Network, the message was sent out into the depths of space. Even travelling at the speed of light, it took over II hours to reach its target, far beyond the orbit of Pluto. Yet, incredibly, the little probe managed to hear the faint call from its home planet, and successfully made the switchover.

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