IELTS READING TEST SET 5 TASK 3 AC – IS PHOTOGRAPHY ART?

IELTS SIMULATOR READING TEST SET 5 TASK 3 AC – IS PHOTOGRAPHY ART? IELTS SIMULATION
IELTS READING TEST SET 5 TASK 3 AC

IS PHOTOGRAPHY ART?

This may seem a pointless question today. Surrounded as we are by thousands of photographs, most of us take for granted that, in addition to supplying information and seducing customers, camera images also serve as decoration,

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afford spiritual enrichment, and provide significant insights into the passing scene. But in the decades following the discovery of photography, this question reflected the search for ways to fit the mechanical medium into the traditional schemes of artistic expression 

The much-publicized pronouncement by painter Paul Delaroche that the daguerreotype* signalled the end of painting is perplexing because this clever artist also forecast the usefulness of the medium for graphic artists in a letter written in 1839. Nevertheless, it is symptomatic of the swing between the outright rejection and qualified acceptance of the medium that was fairly typical of the artistic establishment. Discussion of the role of photography in art was especially spirited in France, where the internal policies of the time had created a large pool of artists, but it was also taken up by important voices in England. In both countries, public interest in this topic was a reflection of the belief that national stature and achievement in the arts were related.

From the maze of conflicting statements and heated articles on the subject, three main positions about the potential of camera art emerged. The simplest, entertained by many painters and a section of the public, was that photographs should not be considered ‘art’ because they were made with a mechanical device and by physical and chemical phenomena instead of by human hand and  spirit; to some, camera images seemed to have more in common with fabric produced by machinery in a mill than with handmade creations fired by inspiration. The second widely held view, shared by painters, some photographers, and some critics, was that photographs would be useful to art but should not be considered equal in creativeness to drawing and painting. Lastly, by assuming that the process was comparable to other techniques such as etching and lithography, a fair number of individuals realized that camera images were or could be as significant as handmade works of art and that they might have a positive influence on the arts and on culture in general.

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IELTS LISTENING TEST SET 4 TASK 1 AC – Jazz band

Questions 1-7

 

Complete the table below.Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer

 

Event
Cost
Venue
Notes

Jazz band

Example

Tickets available

for £15

The 1

school

Also appearing:

Carolyn Hart (plays the 2

Duck races

£1 per duck

Start behind

the 3

Prize: tickets for 4

held at the end of the festival.

Ducks can be bought in the 5

Flower show

Free

6 Hall

Prizes presented at 5 pm

by a well-known 7

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IELTS WRITING TEST SET 4 TASK 2 AC – Economic progress is their most important goal.

IELTS WRITING TEST SET 4 TASK 2 AC

Write about the following topic:

Many governments think that economic progress is their most important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country.

Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

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IELTS READING TEST SET 5 TASK 2 AC – The changing role of airports

The changing role of airports..Airports continue to diversify their role...IELTS SIMULATIONS, IELTS SIMULATOR
IELTS READING TEST SET 5 TASK 2 AC

The changing role of airports

Airports continue to diversify their role in an effort to generate income. Are business meeting facilities the next step? Nigel Halpern, Anne Graham and Rob Davidson investigate.

A
In recent times developing commercial revenues has become more challenging for airports due to a combination of factors,

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such as increased competition from Internet shopping, restrictions on certain sales, such as tobacco, and new security procedures that have had an impact on the dwell time of passengers. Moreover, the global economic downturn has caused a reduction in passenger numbers while those that are travelling generally have less money to spend. This has meant that the share subsequently declined slightly. Meanwhile, the pressures to control the level of aeronautical revenues are as strong as ever due to the poor financial health of many airlines and the rapid rise of the low-cost carrier sector.

B
Some of the more obvious solutions to growing commercial revenues, such as extending the merchandising space or expanding the variety of shopping opportunities, have already been tried to their limit at many airports. A more radical solution is to find new sources of commercial revenue within the terminal, and this has been explored by many airports over the last decade or so. As a result, many terminals are now much more than just shopping malls and offer an array of entertainment, leisure, and beauty and wellness facilities. At this stage of facilities provision, the airport also has the possibility of talking on the role of the final destination rather than merely a facilitator of access.

C
At the same time, airports have been developing and expanding the range of services that they provide specifically for the business traveller in the terminal. This includes offering business centres that supply support services, meeting or conference rooms and other space for special events. Within this context, Jarach (2001) discusses how dedicated meetings facilities located within the terminal and managed directly by the airport operator may be regarded as an expansion of the concept of airline lounges or as a way to reconvert abandoned or underused areas of terminal and managed directly by the airport hotels and other facilities offered in the surrounding area of the airport that had the potential to take on this role and become active as a business space (McNeill, 2009).

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