IELTS LISTENING – The History Of Weather Forecasting S19AT4


The History Of Weather Forecasting

Lecturer: In this series of lectures about the history of weather forecasting, I’ll start by examining its early history that will be the subject of today’s talk. Okay, so we’ll start by going back thousands of years. Most ancient cultures had weather gods on DH, whether catastrophes such a cz floods played an important role in many creation myths generally, whether was attributed to the whims of the gods as the wide range of weather gods in various culture. Cher’s shows, for instance, there’s thie, Egyptian sun God rot on DH thought, the north gold of thunder and lightning. Many ancient civilizations Developed writes such a cz dances in order to make the weather gods look kindly on them. But the weather was off daily importance. Observing the skies and drawing the correct conclusions from these observations was really important. In fact, their survival depended on it. It isn’t known when people first started to observe the skies, but at around 650 BC The Babylonian Sze produced the first short range weather forecasts based on their observations of clouds on DH. Other phenomena. The Chinese also recognised weather patterns on by 300 BC Astronomers had developed a calendar which divided the year into 24 festivals, each associated with a different weather phenomenon. The ancient Greeks were the first to develop a more scientific approach to explaining the weather. The work of the philosopher and scientist Aristotle in the fourth century BC is especially noteworthy as his ideas held sway for nearly 2000 years. In 340 BC, He wrote a book in which he attempted to account for the formation of rain clouds wind on DH storms. He also described celestial phenomena such as halos that is bright circles of light around the sun, the moon and bright stars on DH comets. Many of his observations were surprisingly accurate. For example, he believed that heat could cause water to evaporate. But he also jumped to quite a few wrong conclusions, such as that winds are breathed out by the earth. Errors like this were rectified from the Renaissance onwards for nearly 2000 years, Aristotle’s work was accepted as the chief authority on weather theory. Alongside this, though, in the Middle Ages, whether observations were passed on in the form of proverbs such as red sky at night, Shepherd’s delight red sky in the Morning, Shepherd’s warning. Many of these are based on very good observations on are accurate. As contemporary meteorologists have discovered for centuries. Any attempt to forecast the weather could only be based on personal observations, But in the 15th century, scientists began to see the need for instruments. Until then, the only ones available were weathervanes to determine the wind direction on DH early versions of rain gauges. One of the first invented in the 15th century, was a high Graham Attar, which measured humidity. This was one of many inventions that contributed to the development of weather forecasting. In 15 92 the Italian scientist and inventor Galileo developed the world’s first thermometer. His student, Torricelli, later invented the Barone emitter, which allowed people to measure atmospheric pressure. In 16 48 the French philosopher Pascal proved that pressure decreases with altitude. This discovery was verified by English astronomer Halley in 16 86 and Holly was also the first person to map trade winds. This increasing ability to measure factors related to weather helped scientists to understand the atmosphere and its process is better. Andi. They started collecting whether observation data systematically in the 18th century, the scientists and politician Benjamin Franklin carried out work on electricity and lightning in particular. But he was also very interested in weather and studied it. Throughout most of his life, it was Franklin who discovered that storm’s generally travel from west to east. In addition to new meteorological instruments. Other developments contributed to our understanding of the atmosphere. People in different locations began to keep records, and in the mid 19th century, the invention of the Telegraph made it possible for these records to be collected. This led by the end of the 19th century to the first weather services. It was not until the early 20th century that mathematics and physics became part of meteorology on DH. We’ll continue from that point next week.

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IELTS READING – Student Loans S23GT4


Student Loans

The Government has been funding a loans scheme for students in Higher Education since September 1990.

These loans are available as a ‘top up’ to the standard grant. Although the loan is intended to supplement the grant for living costs, eligibility for a student loan is not restricted to those who receive a maintenance grant.

The decision whether or not to take the loan is yours.


You are eligible for a student loan if you are a UK resident and are attending a full-time Higher Education course, below postgraduate level, or a Postgraduate Certificate in Education course, provided you start your course before your 50th birthday. Full-time courses last at least one academic year and include sandwich courses which combine time at college with time spent in a workplace.

Eligible courses are offered by colleges, universities, the Scottish grant-aided colleges and other publicly funded institutions providing Higher Education courses.

In general, eligible courses include first-degree courses or their equivalents and any other courses for which your Local Authority will pay your tuition fees.

Your financial circumstances

Students who want loans are not ‘means tested’ or ‘credit vetted’- all those eligible will obtain a loan.

This means that:

  • The amount of your maintenance grant or tuition fees does not matter.
  • Other income, if any, is not taken into account.
  • Any previous student loans are not taken into account.
  • The income of your parents, spouse, partner or other relatives is not taken into account.
  • Your previous financial record is not a consideration.

When to apply for a loan

If you would like more information on how to apply for a student loan in readiness for your entry to Higher Education in Autumn 2003, then you should contact The Student Loans Company from June 2003 onwards.

Once in Higher Education, you can apply for a loan at any time in the academic year.


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Desperate to find friends with common interests?

Urgently in need of student contacts around college?

Looking for different cultural and religious experiences?

Wanting some good discussion?

Don’t look any further!


A. This club was first started by a group of friends who enjoyed going to the cinema. When our trips became more frequent we realised that there must be others who also shared our love of movies. This club is for those people. Membership gives wide access to other activities like basketball and football as well as barbeques and other social functions. We don’t just enjoy movies.

B. The association has many opportunities to debate and we are a non-political unbiased international organisation which aims to promote international awareness on campus. We establish links and access to the organisation’s agencies and other internationalist organisations and their resources. Our plans this year include discussion groups, guest speakers and to build a model of the UN General Assembly.

C. Whether for fun or debating experience, we discuss everything from personal experience, future society or feminism. This year we plan an internal competition, weekly debates and beginners’ lessons as well as chances to compete nationally. Whether it be to improve your verbal or social skills the society provides both!

D. Want to be a movie star? Then go somewhere else! On the other hand, want to work really hard for great rewards? Then come and join the club where the interesting theatre is created. We usually put on three productions each year. So if you like to write, paint, act, direct or do anything in the theatre, come and put your name down with us.

If you are interested in joining any of these clubs, you can leave a message for the President at the CAS Office in the Student Union Building. And don’t forget the CAS Ball is an annual event! This year it’s being held on 22 December!


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A. Traditionally uniforms were — and for some industries still are — manufactured to protect the worker. When they were first designed, it is also likely that all uniforms made symbolic sense – those for the military, for example, were originally intended to impress and even terrify the enemy; other uniforms denoted a hierarchy – chefs wore white because they worked with flour, but the main chef wore a black hat to show he supervised.

B. The last 30 years, however, have seen an increasing emphasis on their role in projecting the image of an organisation and in uniting the workforce into a homogeneous unit — particularly in ‘customer facing’ industries, and especially in financial services and retailing. From uniforms and workwear has emerged ‘corporate clothing’. “The people you employ are your ambassadors,” says Peter Griffin, managing director of a major retailer in the UK. “What they say, how they look, and how they behave is terribly important.” The result is a new way of looking at corporate workwear. From being a simple means of identifying who is a member of staff, the uniform is emerging as a new channel of marketing communication.

C. Truly effective marketing through visual cues such as uniforms is a subtle art, however. Wittingly or unwittingly, how we look sends all sorts of powerful subliminal messages to other people. Dark colours give an aura of authority while lighter pastel shades suggest approachability. Certain dress style creates a sense of conservatism, others a sense of openness to new ideas. Neatness can suggest efficiency but, if it is overdone, it can spill over and indicate an obsession with power. “If the company is selling quality, then it must have quality uniforms. If it is selling style, its uniforms must be stylish. If it wants to appear innovative, everybody can’t look exactly the same. Subliminally we see all these things,” says Lynn Elvy, a director of image consultants House of Colour.

D. But translating corporate philosophies into the right mix of colour, style, degree of branding and uniformity can be a fraught process. And it is not always successful. According to Company Clothing magazine, there are 1000 companies supplying the workwear and corporate clothing market. Of these, 22 account for 85% of total sales – £380 million in 1994.



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IELTS READING – Fabulous Furniture S23GT2


Fabulous Furniture

Section A

Have you ever wanted to buy a small bedside table? Or a dinner table for 20 people? If you want it, we’ve got it! Fabulous Furniture has Australia’s widest choice of furniture.

Section B

If you visit a Fabulous Furniture store, you can have your furniture – right now – using our Fabulous Furniture Credit Card. When you see something you really want, you can have it straight away, and pay later.

Section C

Unlike most cards, the Fabulous Furniture Credit Card offers a full 60-day interest-free period on every Fabulous purchase – no matter when you make your purchase. This leaves you with more money to spend on other things.

Section D

  • You may choose to pay the full amount within 60 days. In this case, you pay no interest.
  • You may spread your payments over a longer period. In this case, interest will be charged after the initial 60-day interest-free period.

Section E

Application is absolutely free! Nor are there any annual fees or administration fees. Just fill in the application form and bring it to your nearest Fabulous Furniture store. Your application will be processed promptly and you can begin making purchases immediately after your application is approved.

Section F

We have stores in every major city, so you’re never far away from a Fabulous Furniture store. For our addresses, just check in your local telephone directory.


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IELTS LISTENING – Visit to Branley Castle S19AT2


Visit to Branley Castle


Guide: We’ll be arriving at Brandley Castle in about five minutes. But before we get there, I’ll give you a little information about the castle Andi what our visit will include. So, in fact, there’s being a castle on this site for over 1100 years. The first building was a fort, constructed in 9 14 a. D for defense against Danish invaders by King Alfred, the great’s daughter who ruled England at the time. In the following century, after the Normans conquered England, the land was given to a nobleman called Richard Devere, and he built a castle there that stayed in the Devere family for over 400 years. However, when Queen Elizabeth the first announced that she was going to visit the castle in 15 76 it was beginning to look a bit room down on it was decided that rather than repair the guest rooms that make a new house for a out of wood next to the main hall. She stayed there for four nights, and apparently it was very luxurious, but unfortunately it was destroyed a few years later by fire. In the 17th century, the castle belonged to the wealthy Fenice family who enlarged it and made it more comfortable. However, by 1982 the Fenice family could no longer afford to maintain the castle, even though they received government support and they put it on the market. It was eventually taken over by a company who owned a number of amusement parks. But when we get there, I think you’ll see that they’ve managed to retain the original atmosphere of the castle. When you go inside, you’ll find that in the state rooms, there are lifelike moving wax models dressed in costumes of different periods in the past, which even carry on conversations together, as well as that In every room there are booklets giving information about what the room was used for on the history of the objects and furniture. It contains the castle parks quite extensive. At one time she were kept there, and in the 19th century the owners had a little zoo with animals like rabbits and even a baby elephant. Nowadays, the old zoo buildings, they’re used for public displays of paintings and sculpture. The park also has some beautiful trees, though the oldest of all, which dated back 800 years, was sadly blown down in 1987. Now you’re free to wander around on your old until 4 30 but then, at the end of our visit will all meet together at the bottom of the great staircase. Well, then, go on to the long Gallery, where there’s a wonderful collection of photographs showing the family who owned the castle 100 years ago. Having tea and cakes in the conservatory on will then take you to the same place where afternoon tea will be served to you. Now, if you can take a look at your plans, you’ll see Brandley Castle has four towers, joined together by a high wall with the river on two sides. Don’t miss seeing the great hall that’s near the river in the main tower. The biggest one which was extended and redesigned in the 18th century. If you want to get a good view of the whole castle, you can walk around the walls, the starting points quite near the main entrance. Walk straight down the path until you get to the south gate and it’s just there. Don’t go on to the north gate. There’s no way up from there. They will shortly be a show in which you can see Archer’s displaying their skill with a bow and arrow. The quickest way to get there is to take the first left after the main entrance and follow the past past the bridge. Then you’ll see it in front of you at the end. If you like animals. There’s also a display of hunting birds, falcons and eagles and so on. If you go from the main entrance in the direction of the South Gate, but term right before you get there, instead of going through it, you’ll see it on your right past the first tower. At three PM, there’s a short performance of traditional dancing on the outdoor stage that’s right at the other side of the castle, from the entrance and over the bridge. It’s about 10 minutes. Walk or so and finally the shop. It’s actually inside one of the towers, but the way in is from the outside. Just take the first left after the main entrance, go down the path and take the first right. It’s got some lovely gifts and souvenirs, right? So we’re just arriving.



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IELTS LISTENING – Cities Built By The Sea S16AT3


Cities Built By The Sea

Tutor: Okay, So what I’d like you to do now is to talk to your partner about your presentations on urban planning. You should have done most of the reading now, so I’d like you to share your ideas on the. Talk about the structure of your presentation and what you need to do next.

Carla: Okay? I’m glad we chose quite a specific topic Cities built next to the sea. It made it much easier to find relevant information.

Rob: Yeah, Andi City’s growing so quickly. I mean, we know that more than half the world’s population lives in cities now.

Carla: Yeah, though that’s all cities, not just ones on the coast, but most of the biggest cities are actually built by the sea. I’ve not realized that before.

Rob: No, me on what’s Maura? Lot of them are built at places where rivers come out into the sea. But apparently this could be a problem. Why? Well, as the city expands, agriculture and industry tend to spread further inland along the rivers, and so agriculture moves even further inland up the river. That’s not necessarily a problem, except that means more and more pollutants that discharged into the rivers.

Carla: So these are brought down stream to the city’s right.

Rob: Did you read that article about Miami on the east coast of the U. S. A. Well, apparently, back in the 19 fifties, they built channels to drain away the water in case of flooding.

Carla: Sounds sensible.

Rob: Yeah, they spent quite a lot of money on them, but what they didn’t take into account was global warming. So they built the drainage channels too close to sea level, and now sea levels are rising there, more or less useless. If there’s a lot of rain, the water can’t run away. There’s nowhere for it to go. The whole design was faulty.

Carla: So what are the authorities doing about it now?

Rob: I don’t know. I did read that they’re aiming to stop disposing of waste water into the ocean over the next 10 years

Carla: that that would help with flood prevention now, will it?

Rob: No, really. They just need to find the money for something to replace the drainage channels in order to protect against flooding now. But in the long term, they need to consider the whole ecosystem, right?

Carla: Really? Though coastal cities can’t deal with their problems on their own, can they? I mean, they’ve got to start acting together at an international level instead of just doing their own thing.

Rob: Absolutely. The thing is, everyone knows what the problems are. And environmentalists have a pretty good idea of what we should be doing about them. So they should be able to work together to some extent. But it’s going to be a long time before countries come to a decision on what principles they’re prepared to abide by.

Carla: Yeah, if they ever do. So I think we’ve probably got enough for our presentation. It’s only 15 minutes.

Rob: Okay, so I suppose we’ll begin with some general historical background about why coastal cities were established. But We don’t want to spend too long on that. The other students will already know a bit about it. It’s all to do with communications and so on.

Carla: Yes, we should mention some geographical factors. Things like wetlands and river estuaries and coastal erosion and so on. We could have some maps of different cities with these features marked

Rob: on a handout, You mean or some slides everyone can see.

Carla: Yeah, that’d be better.

Rob: It would be good to go into past mistakes in a bit more detail. Did you read that case study of the problems there were in New Orleans with flooding a few years ago?

Carla: Yes. We could use that as the basis for that part of the talk. I don’t think the other students will have read it, but they’ll remember hearing about the flooding at the time.

Rob: Okay, so that’s probably enough background.

Carla: So then we’ll go on to talk about what action is being taken to deal with the problems of coastal cities. Okay, what else do we need to talk about? Maybe something on future risks looking more at the long term. If populations continue to grow. Yeah, we’ll need to do a bit of work there. I haven’t got much information. Have you

Rob: know we’ll need to look at some websites? Shouldn’t take too long.

Carla: Okay? And I think we should end by talking about international implications. Maybe we could ask people in the audience. We’ve got people from quite a lot of different places. That would

Rob: be interesting if we have time. Yes. So now shall we.



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Crime Report Form

Police Officer: Good morning. What can I do for you?

Louise Taylor: I want to report a theft. I had something stolen out

Police Officer: of my bag yesterday. I’m sorry to hear that. Right. So I’ll need to take a few details it Can I start with your name?

Louise Taylor: Louise Taylor.

Police Officer: Okay. Thank you. And are you a resident in the UK?

Louise Taylor: No, I’m actually Canadian, though. My mother was British.

Police Officer: And your date of birth?

Louise Taylor: December 14th 1977.

Police Officer: So you’re just visiting this country?

Louise Taylor: That’s right. I come over most summers on business. I’m an interior designer, and I come over to buy old furniture. Antiques. You know, there are some really lovely things around here, but you need to get out to the small towns. I had a really good trip this year until this happened.

Police Officer: Okay, so you’ve been here quite a while.

Louise Taylor: Yes, I’m here for two months. I go back next week.

Police Officer: So may I ask where you’re staying now?

Louise Taylor: Well, at present, I’ve got a place at park apartments that’s on King Street. I was staying at the Riverside Apartments on the same street, but the apartment there was only available for six weeks, so I had to find another one.

Police Officer: Okay. And the apartment number 15. Right Now, I need to take some details of the theft. So you said you had some things stolen out of your bag. That’s right. And were you actually carrying the bag when the theft took place?

Louise Taylor: Yes. I really can’t understand it. I had my backpack on and I went into a supermarket to buy a few things. And when I opened it up, my wallet wasn’t there.

Police Officer: And what did your wallet have, innit?

Louise Taylor: Well, fortunately, I don’t keep my credit cards in that wallet. I keep them with my passport in an inside compartment in my backpack, but there was quite a bit of cash there. About £250 sterling. I should think I withdrew £300 from my account yesterday, but I did a bit of shopping, so I must have already spent about £50 of that. Okay, At first I thought, Oh, I must have left the wallet back in the apartment. But then I realised my phone had gone as well. It was only a week old, and that’s when I realised I’d been robbed. Anyway. At least they didn’t take the keys to my rental car.

Police Officer: Yes. So you say the theft occurred yesterday? Yes. So that was September the 10th. And do you have any idea at all of where or when the things might possibly have been stolen?

Louise Taylor: Well, at first I couldn’t believe it because the bag had been on my back ever since I left the apartment after lunch. It’s just a small backpack, but I generally use it when I’m travelling because it seems safer than a handbag. Anyway, I met up with a friend and we spent a couple of hours in the museum, but I do remember that as we were leaving there at about four o’clock, a group of young boys ran up to us and they were really crowding around us, and they were asking us what time it wass. Then all of a sudden they ran off.

Police Officer: Can you remember anything about them?

Louise Taylor: The one who did most of the talking was wearing a T shirt with a picture of something. Uh, let’s see a tiger.

Police Officer: Right. Any idea of how old he might have been

Louise Taylor: around 12 years old.

Police Officer: And can you remember anything else about his appearance?

Louise Taylor: Not much. He was quite thin.

Police Officer: Colour of hair.

Louise Taylor: I do remember that. He was blond. All the others

Police Officer: were dark haired. And any details of the others?

Louise Taylor: Not really. They came and went so quickly.

Police Officer: Right? So what I’m going to do now is give you a crime reference number so you can contact your insurance company. So this is 10 digits. 8795482361

Louise Taylor: Thank you. So should I contact?


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IELTS LISTENING – Background on school marching band S20AT3


Background on school marching band

Supervisor: So how are you getting on with your teaching practice at the high school? Joe?

Joe: Well, I’ve been put in charge of the school marching band, and it’s quite a responsibility. I’d like to talk it over with you

Supervisor: go ahead. You better start by giving me a bit of background.

Joe: Okay, well, the band has students in it from all years, so they’re aged 11 to 18 and there are about 50 of them altogether. It’s quite a popular activity within the school. I’ve never worked with a band of more than 20 before, and this is very different.

Supervisor: I can imagine

Joe: they aren’t really good enough to enter national band competitions, but they’re in a regional one later in the term. Even if they don’t win and I don’t expect them to. Hopefully it’ll be an incentive for them to try and improve.

Supervisor: Yes, hopefully

Joe: well, now the Town Council’s organising a carnival in the summer, and the band has been asked to perform. If you ask me, they aren’t really up to it yet, and I need to get them functioning better as a band and in a very short time,

Supervisor: have you been doing anything with them, apart from practising the music? I mean, I played

Joe: the recording. I came across of a drummer talking about how playing in a band had changed his life. I think it was an after dinner speech. I thought it was pretty inspiring because being in the band had stopped him from getting involved in crime. The students seem to find it interesting, too.

Supervisor: That’s good.

Joe: I’m planning to show them that old film from the 19 forties, strike up the band and talk about it with students. What do you think?

Supervisor: Good idea. As it’s about a school band, it might make the students realise how much they can achieve if they work together.

Joe: That’s what I’ve got in mind. I’m hoping I could take some of the band Teo Parade that’s going to take place next month. A couple of marching bands will be performing, and the atmosphere should be quite exciting. It depends on whether I can persuade the school to hire a coach or two to take us there.

Supervisor: They sound like good ideas to me. Thanks. Can I

Joe: Thanks. Can I tell you about a few people in the band who I’m finding it quite difficult to cope with? I’m sure you’ll have some ideas about what I can do.

Supervisor: Go ahead.

Joe: There’s a flower autistic who said she loves playing in the band. We rehearse twice a week after school, but she’s hardly ever there. Then she looks for me the next day and gives me a very plausible reason. She says she had to help her mother or she’s been ill. But to be honest, I don’t believe her

Supervisor: dear. Any more students with difficulties?

Joe: Plenty. There’s a trumpeter who thinks she’s the best musicians in the band, though she certainly isn’t. She’s always saying what she thinks other people should. D’oh! Which makes my job pretty difficult.

Supervisor: She sounds a bit of a nightmare.

Joe: You can say that again. One of the trombonist CE has got an impressive sense of rhythm and could be an excellent musician except that he has breathing difficulties and he doesn’t really have enough breath for the trombone. He’d be much better off playing percussion, for instance. But he refuses to give up, so he ends up only playing half the notes.

Supervisor: Mexico’s You have to admire his determination.

Joe: Maybe one of the percussionists isn’t too bad, but he never seems to interact with other people. And he always rushes off as soon as the rehearsal ends. I don’t know if there are family reasons or what, but it isn’t good in a band where people really need to feel they’re part of a group. There are others, too, but at least that gives you an idea of what I’m up against. Do you have any thoughts about what I could do? Lizzy?

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On an English course with Atlas English Language College, you improve your language skills and make friends from all over the world!

A. Because Atlas courses start every Monday of the year, there’s bound to be one that fits in with your academic, personal or professional commitments. Whatever your level of language ability, from beginner to advanced, you can choose to study for any length of time, from two weeks to a full year. Courses match a range of individual requirements, from intensive examination preparation to short summer programmes. Most courses commence at 9 am and run till 3 pm.

21 B. If you take an intensive full-time course, we will help you to select the Special Interest Options which best suit your goals. From then on, our teacher will discuss your work with you on a weekly basis. This means that you should develop the language skills you need and that you are helped to study at your own pace.

22 C. The popularity and success of any language school depend greatly on the quality of the teachers and the methods they employ. All Atlas teachers have specialist qualifications in the teaching of English to foreign students and are all native speakers. We employ only experienced professionals with a proven record of success in the classroom.

23 D. Atlas’s teaching methodology is constantly revised as more is discovered about the process of learning a new language. Our teachers have access to an extensive range of materials, including the very latest in language teaching technology.

24 E. On your first day at school, you will take a test which enables our Director of Studies to place you at the appropriate study level. Your progress will be continuously assessed and, once you have achieved specific linguistic goals, you will move up to a higher level of study.

25 F. Every Atlas course fee includes accommodation in carefully selected homestay families. Breakfast and dinner each day are also included, so you need have no concerns about having to look for somewhere to live once you get to the school.

26 G. On completion of any Intensive, Examination or Summer course, you will receive the Atlas Course Certificate of Attendance. On completion of a four-week course or longer, you will also receive the Atlas Academic Record that reflects your ability in every aspect of the language from conversation to writing. Such a record will allow you to present your linguistic credentials to academic institutions or potential employers around the world.


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IELTS WRITING – You were hurt in a minor accident inside a supermarket S24GT1


You were hurt in a minor accident inside a supermarket, and you wish to complain to the supermarket.

Write a letter to the manager of the supermarket.In you latter

  • say who you are
  • give details bout the accident
  • suggest how the supermarket could prevent similar accidents.

YOU do NOT need to write your any address.

Being your letter as follows:

Dear Sir/Madam…


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27 A. The newspaper production process has come a long way from the old days when the paper was written, edited, typeset and ultimately printed in one building with the journalists working on the upper floors and the printing presses going on the ground floor. These days the editor, subeditors and journalists who put the paper together are likely to find themselves in a totally different building or maybe even in a different city. This is the situation which now prevails in Sydney. The daily paper is compiled at the editorial headquarters, known as the prepress centre, in the heart of the city, but printed far away in the suburbs at the printing centre. Here human beings are in the minority as much of the work is done by automated machines controlled by computers.

28 B. Once the finished newspaper has been created for the next morning’s edition, all the pages are transmitted electronically from the prepress centre to the printing centre. The system of transmission is an update on the sophisticated page facsimile system already in use in many other newspapers. An imagesetter at the printing centre delivers the pages as films. Each page takes less than a minute to produce, although for colour pages four versions, once each for black, cyan, magenta and yellow are sent. The pages are then processed into photographic negatives and the film is used to produce aluminium printing plates ready for the presses.

Example C. Beware of robots

A procession of automated vehicles is busy at the new printing centre where the Sydney Morning Herald is printed each day. With lights flashing and warning horns honking, the robots (to give them their correct name, the LGVs or laser guided vehicles) look for all the world like enthusiastic machines from a science fiction movie, as they follow their own random paths around the plant busily getting on with their jobs. Automation of this kind is now standard in all modern newspaper plants. The robots can detect unauthorised personnel and alert security staff immediately if they find an “intruder” not surprisingly, tall tales are already being told about the machines starting to take on personalities of their own.

29 D. The robots’ principal job, however, is to shift the newsprint (the printing paper) that arrives at the plant in huge reels and emerges at the other end sometime later as newspapers. Once the size of the day’s paper and the publishing order are determined at head office, the information is punched into the computer and the LGVs are programmed to go about their work. The LGVs collect the appropriate size paper reels and take them where they have to go. When the press needs another reel its computer alerts the LGV system. The Sydney LGVs move busily around the press room fulfilling their two key functions to collect reels of newsprint either from the reel stripping stations or from the racked supplies in the newsprint storage area. At the stripping station, the tough wrapping that helps to protect a reel of paper from rough handling is removed. Any damaged paper is peeled off and the reel is then weighed.


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IELTS READING – The Discovery of Uranus S20GT5


The Discovery of Uranus

Someone once put forward an attractive though unlikely theory. Throughout the Earth’s annual revolution around the sun, there is one point of space always hidden from our eyes. This point is the opposite part of the Earth’s orbit, which is always hidden by the sun. Could there be another planet there, essentially similar to our own, but always invisible?

If a space probe today sent back evidence that such a world existed it would cause not much more sensation than Sir William Herschel’s discovery of a new planet, Uranus, in 1781.Herschel was an extraordinary man – no other astronomer has ever covered so vast a field of work – and his career deserves study. He was born in Hanover in Germany in 1738, left the German army in 1757, and arrived in England the same year with no money but quite exceptional music ability. He played the violin and oboe and at one time was organist in the Octagon Chapel in the city of Bath. Herschel’s was an active mind, and deep inside he was conscious that music was not his destiny; he, therefore, read widely in science and the arts, but not until 1772 did he come across a book on astronomy. He was then 34, middle-aged by the standards of the time, but without hesitation he embarked on his new career, financing it by his professional work as a musician. He spent years mastering the art of telescope construction, and even by present-day standards, his instruments are comparable with the best. Serious observation began in 1774. He set himself the astonishing task of ‘reviewing the heavens’, in other words, pointing his telescope to every accessible part of the sky and recording what he saw. The first review was made in 1775; the second, and most momentous, in 1780-81. It was during the latter part of this that he discovered Uranus. Afterwards, supported by the royal grant in recognition of his work, he was able to devote himself entirely to astronomy. His final achievements spread from the sun and moon to remote galaxies (of which he discovered hundreds), and papers flooded from his pen until his death in 1822.

Among these there was one sent to the Royal Society in 1781, entitled An Account of a Comet. In his own words: On Tuesday the 13th of March, between ten and eleven in the evening, while I was examining the small stars in the neighbourhood of H Geminorum, I perceived one that appeared visibly larger than the rest; being struck with its uncommon magnitude, I compared it to H Geminorum and the small star in the quartile between Auriga and Gemini, and finding it to be much larger than either of them, suspected it to be a comet.


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IELTS LISTENING – Dan financing his course? S19GT3


Dan financing his course?

Dan: Hi, Jeannie. How’s it going?

Jeannie: Oh, hello, Dan. Pretty well, thanks. Have you managed to get the money for the course yet?

Dan: Yes, that’s all sorted out now. Thanks. It took long enough, though. It was practically a year ago that I apply to my local council for a grant and it took them six months to turn me down.

Jeannie: That’s really slow

Dan: on. I thought I was eligible for government funding, but it seems I was mistaken. So then I asked the boss of the company I used to work for if they would sponsor me on DH. Much to my surprise, he said they’d make a contribution.

Jeannie: But what about college grants and scholarships? There must be some you could apply for.

Dan: Yes, there are, but they’re all so small that I decided to leave them until I was desperate. And in fact, I didn’t need to apply. My parents had been saying that as I already had a job, I want to support myself through college. But in the end they took pity on me. So no, I just about got enough

Jeannie: that good.

Dan: So now I can put a bit of effort into meeting People haven’t had time so far. Any suggestions?

Jeannie: What about joining some college clubs?

Dan: Alright, You joined several, didn’t

Jeannie: you? Yes, I’m in the drama club. It’s our first performance next week, So we’re rehearsing frantically through here and I’ve got behind with my work, but it’s worth it. I’m hoping to be in the spring production to

Dan: I’ve never liked acting. Are you doing anything else?

Jeannie: I enjoyed singing when I was at school, so I joined a group when I came to college. I don’t think the conductor strictures us enough, though, so we’ll give up after the next concert. Andi. I also joined the debating society. It’s fun, but with all the rehearsing I’m doing, something has to go on DH. I’m afraid that’s the one.

Dan: Do you do any sports?

Jeannie: Yes, I’m in one of the hockey team’s not very good, but I’d really miss it if I stopped. I decided to try tennis. When I came to college on DH, I’m finding it pretty tough going. I’m simply not fit enough,

Dan: Normie. I think I’ll give that a miss.

Jeannie: I’m hoping it will help me to build up my stamina, but it’ll probably be a long haul. Good luck. Thanks.

Dan: How are you finding the course?

Jeannie: I wish we had more Seminoles.

Dan: What? I just thought we had more than enough already. All those people saying clever things that I could never think off. It’s quite interesting, but I wonder if I’m clever enough to be doing this course.

Jeannie: I find it helpful to listen to the other people. I like the way we’re exploring the subject and working towards getting insight into it. How do you

Dan: get on with your tutor? I don’t think I’m on the same wavelength as mine, so I feel I’m not getting anything out of the chief’s tutorials. It would be more productive to read a book. Instead, all

Jeannie: minds very demanding. She gives me lots of feedback and advice, so I’ve gotten much better at writing it. Phase, and she’s helping me plan my revision for the end of year exams.

Dan: Do tell me I always struggle with revision.

Jeannie: Well, the first thing is to find out exactly what’s required in the exams.

Dan: Would it help to get hold of some past papers?

Jeannie: Yes, they’ll help to make it clear,

Dan: right? I’ll do that. Then what?

Jeannie: Then you consort at your revision priorities based on what’s most likely to come up. I put these on the card and read them through regularly, but that isn’t enough in itself. You also need a timetable to see how you can fit everything in in the time available. They keep it in front of you while you’re studying

Dan: have done that before, but it hasn’t helped me.

Jeannie: Maybe you need to do something different every day. So if you break down your revision into small tasks and allocate them to specific days, there’s more incentive to tackle them with big topics. You’re more likely to put off starting

Dan: good idea,

Jeannie: and as I revived each topic, I write a single paragraph about it. Then later I could read it too quickly, and it helps fix things in my mind. That’s brilliant. I also write answers to questions for the exam practise. It’s hard to make myself do it, though.

Dan: Well, I’ll try. Thanks a lot, Genie. That’s a great help.

Jeannie: No problem. See around by


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A. Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees. Unlike the minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals, trees are replaceable. Paper is also biodegradable, so it does not pose as much threat to the environment when it is discarded. While 45 out of every 100 tonnes of wood fibre used to make paper in Australia comes from waste paper, the rest comes directly from virgin fibre from forests and plantations. By world standards, this is a good performance since the worldwide average is 33 percent waste paper. Governments have encouraged waste paper collection and sorting schemes and at the same time, the paper industry has responded by developing new recycling technologies that have paved the way for even greater utilization of used fibre. As a result, industry’s use of recycled fibres is expected to increase at twice the rate of virgin fibre over the coming years.

B. Already, waste paper constitutes 70% of paper used for packaging and advances in the technology required to remove ink from the paper have allowed a higher recycled content in newsprint and writing paper. To achieve the benefits of recycling, the community must also contribute. We need to accept a change in the quality of paper products; for example, stationery may be less white and of a rougher texture. There also needs to support from the community for waste paper collection programs. Not only do we need to make the paper available to collectors but it also needs to be separated into different types and sorted from contaminants such as staples, paperclips, string and other miscellaneous items.

C. There are technical limitations to the amount of paper which can be recycled and some paper products cannot be collected for re-use. These include paper in the form of books and permanent records, photographic paper and paper which is badly contaminated. The four most common sources of paper for recycling are factories and retail stores which gather large amounts of packaging material in which goods are delivered, also offices which have unwanted business documents and computer output, paper converters and printers and lastly households which discard newspapers and packaging material. The paper manufacturer pays a price for the paper and may also incur the collection cost.


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IELTS READING – The Medicine S23GT1


The Medicine

  • This medicine must be taken as directed.
  • Before using, shake the bottle.
  • Dose: 50 ml to be taken twice daily after the midday and evening meals.


  • Do not take this medicine on an empty stomach or immediately before lying down.
  • If any of the following occur, discontinue taking the medicine and contact your doctor: dizziness, vomiting, blurred vision.
  • This medicine is not available without a prescription and is not suitable for children under 5 years.
  • Once you have begun to take this medicine you must continue to take it until the bottle is empty, unless advised otherwise by your doctor.
  • Only one course of this medicine should be taken in a period of six months.
  • Expiry date: 16 February 2004.


Fancy Foods wishes to inform the public that pieces of metal have been found in some Jars of Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Spicy). The batches of the jars involved have numbers from J6617 to J6624. The batch number Is printed on the bottom of each Jar.

If you have any Jars with these batch numbers, please return them (preferably unopened) to the supermarket where you purchased them. You can also return them to the factory (Fancy Foods Retailers, Blacktown). Fancy Foods will pay $10 for each jar returned unopened and $5 for each Jar already opened.

No payment will be made for empty jars, which do not need to be returned. However, the company’s Retailing Manager will be interested to hear from people who have consumed chicken curry from any of the above batch numbers. In particular, it will be helpful if they can give information about the place of purchase of the product.

Jars of Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Coconut) and Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Mango) have not been affected and do not need to be returned.


Fancy Foods will pay a reward of $10,000 to $50,000 for information which leads to the con-viction of any person found guilty of placing metal pieces in its products. If you have such infor­mation, please Contact the Customer Relations Manager, Fancy Foods Retailers, Blacktown.


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