IELTS LISTENING – The history of coffee S16GT4



The history of coffee 

In my presentation, I’m going to talk about coffee, and its importance both in economic and social terms. We think it was first drunk in the Arab world, but there’s hardly any documentary evidence of it before the 1500’s , although of course that doesn’t mean that people didn’t know about it before then.However, there is evidence that coffee was originally gathered from bushes growing wild in Ethiopia, in the northeast of Africa. In the early sixteenth century, it was being bought by traders, and gradually its use as a drink spread throughout the Middle East. It’s also known that in 1522, in the Turkish city of Constantinople, which was the center of the Ottoman Empire, the court physician approved its use as a medicine.By the mid-1500’s, coffee bushes were being cultivated in the Yemen and for the next hundred years this region produced most of the coffee drunk in Africa and the Arab world. What’s particularly interesting about coffee is its effect on social life. It was rarely drunk at home, but instead people went to coffee houses to drink it. These people, usually men, would meet to drink coffee and chat about issues of the day. But at the time, this chance to share ideas and opinions was seen as something that was potentially dangerous, and in 1623 the ruler of Constantinople demanded the Q1 destruction of all the coffee houses in the city. although after his death many new ones opened, and coffee consumption continued. In the seventeenth century, coffee drinking spread to Europe, and here too coffee shops became places where ordinary people, nearly always men. could meet to exchange ideas. Because of this, some people said that these places performed a similar function to Q2 universities. The opportunity they provided for people to meet together outside their own homes and to discuss the topics of the day had an enormous impact on social life, and many social movements and        Q3 political developments had their origins in coffee house discussions. 

In the late 1600’s, the Yemeni monopoly on coffee production broke down and coffee production started to spread around the world, helped by European colonization . Europeans set up coffee plantations in Indonesia and the Caribbean and production of coffee in the colonies skyrocketed. Different types of coffee were produced in different areas, and it’s interesting that the names given to these different types, like Mocha or Java coffee, were often taken from the Q4 port they were shipped to Europe from. But if you look at the labor system in the different colonies, there were some significant differences.In Brazil and the various Caribbean colonies, coffee was grown in huge plantations and the workers there were almost all Q5 slaves. But this wasn’t the same in all colonies; for example
in Java, which had been colonized by the Dutch, the peasants grew coffee and passed a proportion of this on to the Dutch so it was used as a means of Q6 taxation. But whatever system was used, under the European powers of the eighteenth century, coffee production was very closely linked to colonization. Coffee was grown in ever-increasing quantities to satisfy the growing demand from Europe, and it became nearly as important as Q7 sugar production, which was grown under very similar conditions. However, coffee prices were not yet low enough for people to drink it regularly at home, so most coffee consumption still took place in public coffee houses and it still remained something of a luxury item. In Britain, however, a new drink was introduced from China, and started to become popular, gradually taking over from coffee, although at first it was so expensive that only the upper classes could afford it. This was Q8 tea, and by the late 1700’s it was being widely drunk. However, when the USA gained independence from Britain in 1776, they identified this drink with Britain, and coffee remained the preferred drink in the USA, as it still is today.

So, by the early nineteenth century, coffee was already being widely produced and consumed. But during this century, production boomed and coffee prices started to fall. This was partly because new types of Q9 transportation had been developed which were cheaper and more efficient. So now, working people could afford to buy coffee – it wasn’t just a drink for the middle classes. And this was at a time when large parts of Europe were starting to work in industries. And sometimes this meant their work didn’t stop when it got dark; they might have to continue throughout the Q10 night. So, the use of coffee as a stimulant became important – it wasn’t just a drink people drank in the morning, for breakfast.

There were also changes in cultivation …


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IELTS LISTENING- Effects of urban environment on animals S14GT4



Effects of urban environment on animals

Hi. Today we’re going to be looking at animals in urban environments and I’m going to be telling you about some research on how they’re affected by these environments.
Now, in evolutionary terms, urban environments represent huge upheavals, the sorts of massive changes that usually happen over millions of years. And we used to think that only a few species could adapt to this new environment. One species which is well known as being highly adaptable is the Q1 crow and there  been various studies about how they manage to learn new skills. Another successful species is the pigeon, because they’re able to perch on ledges on the walls of city buildings, just like they once perched on Q2 cliffs by the sea.

But in fact, we’re now finding that these early immigrants were just the start of a more general movement of animals into cities, and of adaptation by these animals to city life. And one thing that researchers are finding especially interesting is the Q3 speed with which they’re doing this -we’re not talking about gradual evolution here – these animals are changing fast.

Let me tell you about some of the studies that have been carried out in this area. So, in the University of Minnesota, a biologist called Emilie Snell-Rood and her colleagues looked at specimens of urbanised small mammals such as mice and gophers that had been collected in Minnesota, and that are now kept in museums there. And she looked at specimens.

had been collected over the last hundred years, which is a very short time in evolutionary terms. And she found that during that time, these small mammals had experienced a jump in Q4 brains size when compared to rural mammals. Now, we can’t be sure this means they’re more intelligent, but since the sizes of other parts of the body didn’t change, it does suggest that something cognitive was going on. And Snell-Rood thinks that this change might reflect the  cognitive demands of adjusting to city life – having to look in different places to find Q5 food. for example, and coping with a whole new set of dangers.

Then over in Germany at the Max Planck Institute, there’s another biologist called Catarina Miranda who’s done some experiments with blackbirds living in urban and rural areas. And she’s been looking not at their anatomy but at their Q6 behaviour . So as you might expect, she’s found that the urban blackbirds tend to be quite bold – they’re prepared to face up to a lot of threats that would frighten away their country counterparts. But there’s one type of situation that does seem to frighten the urban blackbirds, and that’s anything Q7 new – anything they haven’t experienced before. And if you think about it, that’s quite sensible for a bird living in the city.

Jonathan At well, in Indiana University, is looking at how a range of animals respond to urban environments. He’s found that when they’re under Q8 stress their endocrine systems react by reducing the amount of hormones such as corticosterone into their blood. It’s a sensible- seeming adaptation. A rat that gets scared every time a subway train rolls past won’t be very successful.

There’s just one more study I’d like to mention which is by Sarah Partan and her team, and they’ve been looking at how squirrels communicate in an urban environment, and they’ve found that a routine part of their communication is carried out by waving their Q9  tails. You do also see this in the country, but it’s much more prevalent in cities, possibly because it’s effective in a noisy environment.

So what are the long-term implications of this? One possibility is that we may see completely new species developing in cities. But on the other hand it’s possible that not all of these
adaptations will be Q10 permanent. Once the animal’s got accustomed to its new environment, it
may no longer need the features it’s developed.

So, now we’ve had a look …


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Today we continue our series on ecology and conservation with a look at a particularly endangered member of the black bear family. One in ten black bears is actually born with a white coat. which is the result of a special Q1 gene that surfaces in a few. Local people have named it ‘the spirit bear’. And according to the legends of these communities its snowy fur brings with it a special Q2 power. Because of this, it has always been highly regarded by them – so much that they do not speak of seeing it to anyone else. It is their way of protecting it when  Q3 strangers visit the area.The white bear’s habitat is quite interesting. The bear’s strong relationship with the old growth  is a complex one. The white bear relies on the huge centuries-old trees in the forest in many ways. For example. the old-growth trees have extremely long roots that help prevent Q4 erosion of the soil along the banks of the many fish streams. Keeping these banks intact is important because these streams are home to salmon, which are the bear’s main food source. In return, the bear’s feeding habits nurture the forest. As the bears eat the salmon, they discard the skin and bones in great amounts on the forest floor, which provide vital nutrients. These produce lush vegetation that sustains thousands of other types of life forms, from birds to insects and more.

Today, the spirit bear lives off the coast of the province of British Columbia on a few Q5 island.There is great concern for their survival since it is estimated that less than two hundred of these white bears remain. The best way to protect them is to make every effort to preserve the delicate balance of their forest environment -in other words, their ecosystem.The greatest threat to the bear’s existence is the loss of its habitat. Over many years, logging companies have stripped the land by cutting down a large number of trees. In addition, they have built Q6 roads which have fractured the areas where the bear usually feeds, and many hibernation sites have also been lost. The logging of the trees along the streams has damaged the places where the bears fish. To make matters worse, then the number of salmon in those streams is declining because there is no legal limit on Q7 fishing at the moment.All these influences have a negative impact on the spirit bear’s very existence, which is made all the more fragile by the fact that Q8reproduction among these bears has always been disappointingly low.

And so, what’s the situation going forward? Community organizations, environmental groups and the British Columbia government are now working together on the problem. The government is now requiring logging companies to adopt a better logging Q9 method, which is a positive step. However, these measures alone may not be sufficient to ensure a healthy population of the spirit bear in the future.Other steps also need to be taken. While it is important to maintain the here also needs to be more emphasis on its Q10 expansion. The move is justified as it will also create space for other bears that are losing their homes … 


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IELTS LISTENING – The use of soil to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere S11GT4


The use of soil to reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

As we saw in the last lecture, a major cause of climate changes is the rapid rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the last century.If we could reduce the amount of CO2, perhaps the rate of climate change could also be slowed down. One potential method involves enhancing the role of the soil that plants grown in,with regard to absorbing CO2. Rattan Lal, a soil scientist from Ohio State University, in the USA, claims that the world’s agricultural soils could potentially absorb 13 per cent of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere – the equivalent of the amount released in the 30 years. And research is going on into how this might be achieved.

Lal first came to he idea that soil might be valuable in this way not through an internet in climate change, but rather, out of concern for the land itself and the people dependent on it.Carbon-rich soil is dark,crumbly and fertile, and retains some water.But erosion can occur if soil is Q1 dry, which is a likely effect if it contains inadequate amount of carbon.Erosion is of course bad for people trying to grow crops or breed animals on that terrain.In the 1970’s and 80’s, Lal was studying soils in Africa so devoid of organic matter than the ground had become extremely Q2 hard, like cement. There he met a pioneer in the study of global warming, who suggested that carbon from the soil had moved into the atmosphere.This is now looking increasingly likely.

Let me explain.For millions of years , carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been regulated  in part, by natural partnership between plants and microbes-tiny organism in the soil.Plants absorb CO2 from the air and transform it into Q3 sugar and other carbon-based substances.While a proportion of these carbon remain in the plant, some transfer from the Q4 roots to fungi and soil microbes, which store the carbon in the soil.

The invention of agriculture some 10,000 years ago disrupted these ancient soil-building processes and led to the carbon from the soil.When human started draining the natural topsoil, and ploughing it up for planting, they exposed the buried carbon to oxygen. This created carbon dioxide and realized it into the air. And in some places, grazing by domesticated animals has removed all vegetation, releasing carbon into the air. Tons of carbon have been stripped from the world’s soils- where it’s needed- and pumped into the atmosphere.

So what can be done? Researchers are now coming up with evidence that even modest changes to farming can significantly help to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.

Some growers have already started using an approach known as regenerative agriculture.The aims to boost the fertility of soil and keep it            Q5 moist through established practices.These include keeping fields planted all years round, and increasing the Q6 variety of plants being grown. Strategies like these can significantly increase the amount of carbon stored in the soil, so agricultural researchers are now building a case for their use in combating climate change.

One American investigation into the potential for storing CO2 on agricultural lands is taking place in California. Soil scientist Whendee Silver of the University of California, Berkeley, is conducting a first- of-its-kind study on a large Q7 cattle farm in the state. She and her students are testing the effects on carbon storage of the compost that is created from waste- both agricultural, including manure and cornstalks, and waste produced from waste product in Q8 gardens such as leaves, branches and lawn trimmings.

In Australia, soil ecologist Christine Jones is testing another promising soil-enrichment strategy.Jones and 12 farmers are working to build up soil carbon by cultivating Q9 grasses that stay green all year round.Like composting, the approach has already been proved experimentally; Jones now hopes to show that it can be applied on working farms and that the resulting carbon capture can be accurately measured.

It’s hoped in the future that projects such as these will demonstrate the role that farmer and other land managers can play in reducing the harmful effects of greenhouse gases.For example, in countries like the United States ,were most farming operations use large applications of fertilizer,changing such long- standing habits will required a change of system. Rattan Lal argues that farmers should receive Q10 payment not just for the corn or beef they produce, but also for the carbon they can store in their soil.

Another study being carried out…


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IELTS LISTENING – The sleepy lizard (tiliqua rugose) S15GT4


The sleepy lizard (tiliqua rugose)

Last week, we started looking at reptiles, including crocodiles and snakes. Today, I’d like us to have a look at another reptile -the lizard -and in particular, at some studies that have been done on a particular type of lizard whose Latin name is tiliqua rugosa. This is commonly known as the sleepy lizard, because it’s quite slow in its movements and spends quite a lot of its time dozing under rocks or lying in the sun.I’ll start with a general description. Sleepy lizards live in Western and South Australia, where they’re quite common. Unlike European lizards, which are mostly small, green and fast- moving, sleepy lizards are brown, but what’s particularly distinctive about them is the color of their Q1 tongue, which is dark blue, in contrast with the lining of their mouth which is bright pink. And they’re much bigger than most European lizards. They have quite a varied diet, including insects and even small animals, but they mostly eat Q2 plants of varying kinds.

Even though they’re quite large and powerful, with strong jaws that can crush beetles and snail shells, they still have quite a few predators. Large birds like cassowaries were one of the main ones in the past, but nowadays they’re more likely to be caught and killed by Q3 snakes. Actually, another threat to their survival isn’t a predator at all, but is man-made -quite a large number of sleepy lizards are killed by cars when they’re trying to cross highways.One study carried. out by , Michael Freak at Flinders University investigated the methods of navigation of these lizards. Though they move slowly, they can travel quite long distances. And
he found that even if they were taken some distance away from their home territory, they could  usually find their way back home as long as they could see the Q4 sky -they didn’t need any other landmarks on the ground.Observations of these lizards in the wild have also revealed that their mating habits are quite unusual. Unlike most animals, it seems that they’re relatively monogamous, returning to-the same Q5 partner year after year. And the male and female also stay together for a long time, both before and after the birth of their young.

It’s quite interesting to think about the possible reasons for this. It could be that it’s to do with protecting their young -you’d expect them to have a much better chance of survival if they have both parents around. But in fact observers have noted that once the babies have hatched out of their eggs, they have hardly any Q6 contact with their parents. So, there’s not really any evidence to support that idea. Another suggestion’s based on the observation that male lizards in monogamous relationships tend to be bigger and stronger than other males. So maybe the male lizards stay around so they can give the female lizards Q7 protection from other males. But again, we’re not really sure.Finally, I’d like to mention another study that involved collecting data by tracking the lizards. I was actually involved in this myself. So we caught some lizards in the wild and we developed a tiny GPS system that would allow us to track them, and we fixed this onto their Q8 tails. Then we set the lizards free again, and we were able to track them for twelve days and gather data, not just about their location, but even about how many Q9 steps they took during this period.One surprising thing we discovered from this is that there were far fewer meetings between lizards than we expected – it seems that they were actually trying to avoid one another. So why would that be? Well, again we have no clear evidence, but one hypothesis is that male lizards can cause quite serious Q10 injuries to one another, so maybe this avoidance is a way of preventing this – of self-preservation, if you like. But we need to collect a lot more data before we can be sure of any of this.


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IELTS LISTENING – Episodic memory S13GT4


Episodic memory

Today, we’ll be continuing the series of lectures on memory by focusing on what is called episodic memory and what can happen if this is not working properly.

Episodic memory refers to the memory of an event or ‘episode’. Episodic memories allow us to mentally travel back in time to an event from the past. Episodic memories include various details about these events, for example, when an event happened and other information such as the         Q1 location. To help understand this concept, try to remember the last time you ate dinner at a restaurant. The ability to remember where you ate, who you were with and the items you ordered are all features of an episodic memory.

Episodic memory is distinct from another type of memory called semantic memory. This is the type of factual memory that we have in common with everyone else – that is your general knowledge of the Q2 world. To build upon a previous example, remembering where you parked your car is an example of episodic memory, but your understanding of what a car is and
how an engine works are examples of semantic memory. Unlike episodic memory, semantic memory isn’t dependent on recalling Q3 personal experiences.

Episodic memory can be thought of as a process with several different steps of memory processing: encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

The initial step is called encoding. This involves the process of receiving and registering information, which is necessary for creating memories of information or events that you experience. The degree to which you can successfully encode information depends on the level of Q4 attention you give to an event while it’s actually happening. Being distracted can make effective encoding very difficult. Encoding of episodic memories is also influenced by how you process the event. For example, if you were introduced to someone called Charlie, you might make the connection that your uncle has the same Q5 name. Future recollection of Charlie’s  name is much easier if you have a strategy to help you encode it.

Memory consolidation, the next step in forming an  memory, is the process by which memories of encoded information are strengthened, established  and stored to facilitate later retrieval. Consolidation is most effective when the information being stored can be linked to an existing Q6 network of information. Consolidation makes it possible for you to store memories for later retrieval indefinitely. Forming strong memories depends on the Q7  frequency with which  you try to retrieve them. Memories can fade or become harder to retrieve if they aren’t used very often. 

The last step in forming episodic memories is called retrieval, which is the conscious recollection of encoded information. Retrieving information from episodic memory depends upon semantic, olfactory, auditory and visual factors. These help episodic memory retrieval by acting as a prompt. For example, when recalling where you parked your car you may use the Q8 color  of a sign close to where you parked. You actually have to mentally travel back to the moment you parked. 

There are a wide range of neurological diseases and conditions that can affect memory. These range from Alzheimer’s to schizophrenia to autism. An impairment of episodic memory can have a profound effect on individuals’ lives. For example, the symptoms of schizophrenia can be reasonably well controlled by medication; however, patients’ episodic memory may still be impaired and so they are often unable to return to university or work. Recent studies have shown that computer-assisted games designed to keep the Q9 brain active can help improve their episodic memory.

Episodic memories can help people connect with others for instance by sharing intimate details about their past something individuals with autism often have problems with. This may be caused by an absence of a sense of Q10  self. This is essential for the storage of episodic memory, and has been found to be impaired in children with autism. Research has shown that treatments that improve memory may also have a positive impact on children’s social development.

One study looked at a …


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We’ve been discussing the factors the architect has to consider when designing domestic buildings. I’m going to move on now to consider the design of public buildings, and I’ll illustrate this by referring to the new Taylor Concert Hall that’s recently been completed here in the city.

So, as with a domestic building, when designing a public building, an architect needs to consider the function of the building -for example, is it to be used primarily for entertainment, or for education, or for administration? The second thing the architect needs to think about is the context of the building, this includes its physical location. obviously. but it also includes the  Q1 social meaning of the building, how it relates to the people it’s built for. And finally, for important public buildings, the architect may also be looking for a central symbolic idea on which to base the design, a sort of metaphor for the building and the way in which it is used.

Let’s look at the new Taylor Concert Hall in relation to these ideas. The location chosen was a site in a run-down district that has been ignored in previous redevelopment plans. It was occupied by a Q2 factory that had been empty for some years. The whole area was some distance from the high-rise office blocks of the central business district and shopping center, but it was only one kilometer from the ring road. The site itself was bordered to the north by a Q3 canal which had once been used by boats bringing in raw materials when the area was used for manufacturing.

The architect chosen for the project was Tom Harrison. He found the main design challenge was the location of the site in an area that had no neighbouring buildings of any importance. To reflect the fact that the significance of the building in this quite run-down location was as yet unknown, he decided to create a building centered around the idea of a mystery -something whose meaning still has to be discovered.

So how was this reflected in the design of the building? Well, Harrison decided to create pedestrian access to the building and to make use of the presence of water on the site. As people approach the entrance, they therefore have to cross over a Q4  bridge. He wanted to give people a feeling of suspense as they see the building first from a distance, and then close-up, and the initial impression he wanted to create from the shape of the building as a whole was that of a Q5 box. The first side that people see, the southern wall, is just a high, flat wall uninterrupted by any windows. This might sound off-putting, but it supports Harrison’s concept of the building -that the person approaching is intrigued and wonders what will be inside. And this flat wall also has another purpose. At night-time. projectors are switched on and it functions as a huge Q6 screen. onto which images are projected.

The auditorium itself seats 1500 people. The floor’s supported by ten massive pads. These are constructed from Q7 rubber, and so are able to absorb any vibrations from outside and prevent them from affecting the auditorium. The walls are made of several layers of honey-colored wood, all sourced from local beech trees. In order to improve the acoustic properties of the auditorium and to amplify the sound, they are not straight. they are Q8 curved. The acoustics are also adjustable according to the size of orchestra and the type of music being played. In order to achieve this, there are nine movable panels in the ceiling above the orchestra which are all individually motorized, and the walls also have Q9 curtains which can be opened or closed to change the acoustics.

The reaction of the public to the new building has generally been positive. However, the evaluation of some critics has been less enthusiastic. In spite of Harrison’s efforts to use local materials. they criticize the style of the design as being Q10 international rather than local, and say it doesn’t reflect features of the landscape or society for which it is built.


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IELTS LISTENING TEST SET 2 TASK 1 GT – ask about a festival in the town of Kenton

IELTS SIMULATOR LISTENING TEST SET 2 TASK 1 GT - box office to ask about a festival in the town of canton.IELTS SIMULATION

ask about a festival in the town of Kenton.

Festival box office :Good morning, Kenton Festival box office. How can I help you?

Customer :oh, good morning. I’m coming to Kenton for a few days’ holiday next month, and a friend told me there’s a festival. She gave me this number to find out about it.

Customer :That’s great I’ll be there from the 15th to the 19th . So could you tell me the program please.

Festival box office : Well, on the first day, there’s the opening ceremony, in the town centre. People start gathering around 2 o’clock, to get a good place to see from, and the events will start at Q1 2.45 . and finish about 5.30.

Customer :OK, thanks. I’ll make sure I get there early to get a good spot.

Festival box office : The festival will be officially opened by the mayor. He’ll just speak for a few minutes, welcoming everyone to the festival. All the town councillors will be there, and of course lots of other people.

Customer :Right.

Festival box office : Then there’ll be a-performance by a Q2 band. Most years we have a children’s choir, but this year the local army cadets offered to perform and they’re very good.

Customer : Uhuh

Festival box office : After that, a community group from the town will perform a Q3 play they’ve written themselves, just a short one. It’s about Helen Tungate. I don’t know if you’ve heard of her?

Customer :I certainly have she was a Q4  scientist  years ago.

Festival box office : That’s right. She was born in Kenton exactly 100 years ago, so we’re celebrating her centenary.

Customer :I’m a biologist so wife always been interested in her I didn’t really she came from Kenton.

Festival box office :Yes. Well, all that will take place in the afternoon, and later, as the sun sets, there’ll be a firework display. You should  to the Dark to watch, as you’ll get the best view from there, and the display takes place on the opposite side of the Q5 river. It’s always one of the most popular events in the festival.

Customer :Sounds great. And what’s happening on the other days.

Festival box office : There are several events that ao on the whole time. For example, the students of the art college have produced a number of videos, all connected with relationships between children and their Q6  grandparents.

Customer : That sounds interesting. It makes a change from children and parents, doesn’t it!

Festival box office : Exactly. Because the art college is in use for classes, throughout the festival, the videos are being shown in Q7  Handsworth House.

Customer :How do you spell the name.

Festival box office :H. A. N. D. S. W. O. R. C. H.. Holmes was house it’s close to the town hall.

Customer :Right.

Festival box office : Now let me see, what else can I tell you about?

Customer : Are there any displays of ballet dancing? I’m particularly interested in that as l do it as a hobby.

Festival box office : There isn’t any ballet. I’m afraid, but there’ll be a demonstration of Q8 traditional dances from all round the country.

Customer :  Oh, that’d be nice. Where’s that being held?

Festival box office : It’s in the market in the town centre – the Q9 outdoor one. not the covered market. And it’s on at 2 and 5 every afternoon of the festival, apart from the first day.

Festival box office : Lovely. I’m interested in all kinds of dancing, so I’m sure I’ll enjoy that!

Customer : Mmm. I’m sure you will.

Festival box office : And I’d really like to go to some concerts, if there are any.

Customer : And I’d really like to go to some concerts if there are any.

Festival box office : Yes, there are several. Three performed by professionals, and one by local children.

Customer :And where is it being held.

Festival box office : It’s in the library, which is in Park Street. On the 18th, at 6.30 in the evening.

Customer :I presume only tickets for that town  

Festival box office : Yes. you can book online, or you can buy them when you arrive in Kenton, either at the festival box office, or from any shops displaying our Q10 logo in the windows.

Customer : Well, I think that’ll keep me busy for the whole of my stay in Kenton. Thank you so much for all your help.

Festival box office :You welcome I hope you enjoy your stay.

Customer :Thank you goodbye.



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