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IELTS READING – Choosing the right format for your CV S14GT4

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Choosing the right format for your CV

A good CV should be clear, simple and easy to understand. Here are four of the most popular CV formats and advice on when to use them:

Chronological

This is the traditional CV format and is extremely popular because it allows employers to see all the posts you have held in order.

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It provides Q1 flexibility because it works in almost all circumstances, the exception being if you have blocks of Q2 unemployment that are difficult to account for. This type of format is particularly useful when you have a solid and complete working history spanning five years or more.

Functional

The functional CV is designed to describe your key skills rather than the jobs you have done. The functional CV format is typically used by people who have extensive gaps in their employment history, or have often changed jobs. It also suits those who want to go in a different Q3 direction work-wise and change industry. You might choose it if you want to highlight skills learned early in your career, points that might get missed if a chronological format is used. It is also appropriate if you have done little or no actual work, for example, if you are one of the current years graduates.

Because this format is often used to cover a patchy employment history, some interviewers may view such CVs with Q4 suspicion, so be very careful should you choose it.

Achievement

An alternative to the functional CV is to use an achievement-based resume highlighting key achievements in place of skills. This can help show your suitability for a role if you lack direct Q5 experience of it.

Non-traditional

With the explosion of digital and creative industries over recent years, CV formats have become more and more imaginative. You can present information through Q6 graphics which can be more visually engaging and turn out to be an unusual but winning option. This will definitely make you stand out from the crowd. It also demonstrates design skills and creativity in a way that a potential employer can see and feel. However, a highly creative CV format is only really appropriate for creative and artistic sectors, such as those involving promoting products, though it would also work for the Q7 media too.

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IELTS READING – Tea and the Industrial Revolution S15AT1

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Tea and the Industrial Revolution

A Cambridge professor says that a change in drinking Habits was the reason for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Anjana Abuja reports

A – The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

Alan Macfarlane, professor of anthropological science at King’s College, Cambridge has, like other historians, spent decades wrestling with the enigma of the Industrial Revolution.

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Q1 Why did this particular Big Bang – the world-changing birth of industry-happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?

B – Conditions required for industrialisation

Macfarlane compares the puzzle to a combination lock. ‘Q2 There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen,’ he says. For industry to take off, there needs to be the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen. While this was the case for England, other nations, such as Japan, the Netherlands and France also met some of these criteria but were not industrialising. All these factors must have been necessary. But not sufficient to cause the revolution, says Macfarlane. ‘After all, Holland had everything except coal while China also had many of these factors. Most historians are convinced there are one or two missing factors that you need to open the lock.’

C – Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution

The missing factors, he proposes, are to be found in almost even kitchen cupboard. Q3 Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favourite drinks, fuelled the revolution. The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – Q9 allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery. The theory sounds eccentric but once he starts to explain the detective work that went into his deduction, the scepticism gives way to wary admiration. Q10 Macfarlanes case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters – Roy Porter, the distinguished medical historian, recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research.

D – The search for the reasons for an increase in population

Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about. Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Q11 Between about 1650 and 1740,the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth. Macfarlane says: ‘The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes. People suggested four possible causes. Was there a sudden change in the viruses and bacteria around? Unlikely. Was there a revolution in medical science? But this was a century before Lister’s revolution*. Was there a change in environmental conditions? There were improvements in agriculture that wiped out malaria, but these were small gains. Sanitation did not become widespread until the 19th century. The only option left is food. But the height and weight statistics show a decline. So the food must have got worse. Q4 Efforts to explain this sudden reduction in child deaths appeared to draw a blank.’

E – Changes in drinking habits in Britain

This population burst seemed to happen at just the right time to provide labour for the Industrial Revolution. ‘When you start moving towards an industrial revolution, it is economically efficient to have people living close together,’ says Macfarlane. ‘But then you get disease, particularly from human waste.’ Some digging around in historical records revealed that there was a change in the incidence of water-borne disease at that time, especially dysentery. Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease. He says, ‘We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. Q5 But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and Q13 in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again. What caused this?’

F – Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer

Q6 Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? Macfarlane then noted that the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates. Tea was relatively expensive until Britain started a direct dipper trade with China in the early 18th century. By the 1740s, about the time that infant mortality was dipping, the drink was common. Macfarlane guessed that the fact that water had to be boiled, together with the stomach-purifying properties of tea meant that the breast milk provided by mothers was healthier than it had ever been. No other European nation sipped tea like the British, which, by Macfarlanes logic, pushed these other countries out of contention for the revolution.

Q12 People in Britain used to make beer at home. NOT GIVEN

G -Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment

But, if tea is a factor in the combination lock, why didn’t Japan forge ahead in a tea-soaked industrial revolution of its own? Macfarlane notes that even though 17th-century Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market, Q7 it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work. So, the nation that we now think of as one of the most technologically advanced entered the 19th century having ‘abandoned the wheel’.

Q8 China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century. NOT GIVEN

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IELTS READING – The 7 best running watches S15GT2

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The 7 best running watches

Kate Hilpern advises people on the best watches to use when they go running.

A. Soleus FIT 1.0

Soleus claims this has everything you need and nothing you don’t. Water – resistant to 30m and with a built-in rechargeable battery, Q6 it’s accurate at measuring speed, pace, distance and calories burnt.

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B. Nike+ SportWatch GPS

You’ll be hard pushed to find a running watch that finds a GPS signal quicker than this. It will keep you updated on current location, distance covered, number of laps and calories burnt.

C. Garmin Forerunner

This watch, which is small enough to wear at the office, is touchscreen and is packed with impressive features, Q4 although the battery life is limited.

D. Timex Run Trainer 2.0

Q5 The hi-res screen makes this a great watch for athletes at any level. The easy-to-use, upgraded menu system makes monitoring pace, speed and distance child’s play. Q3 Alerts remind you when it’s time to hydrate or top up the nutrition.

E. Garmin Forerunner 10

Q1 This is a well-priced, entry-level watch that’s light as well as waterproof and available in a range of colours. Don’t expect added extras, but do expect good basic functionality.

F. Nike Fuelband

Described by the Huffington Post as ‘the sports watch you never knew you needed,’ Q2 this soft-touch and lightweight watch has been lovingly designed to appear more like a piece of futuristic jewellery than a running watch. But it’s hi-tech too and synchronises with your phone to show the results.

G. Suunto Ambit2 S HR

This is better suited to off-roaders rather than Q7 urban runners and although it’s quite big, it has a functional design and is compatible with the thousands of Suunto apps available.

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IELTS READING – New York Late-Starters String Orchestra S15GT1

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New York Late-Starters String Orchestra

NYLSO, the New York Late-Starters String Orchestra, is something special. It was founded in early 2007, and Q1 grew out of a concept developed by The East London Late Starters Orchestra (ELLSO), an award-winning group in England.

NYLSO is an amateur orchestra for adult players of violin, viola, cello, and double bass. If you played a string instrument when you were younger and would like to start again,

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or if you are learning as an adult and would like the chance to play in a group of similar people, then NYLSO is for you! Our goal is to create a fun, supportive, non-competitive environment for adults 18 to 80+ who wish to participate in collective music-making.

Q2 Participants should have basic music reading skills and a willingness to commit to the group, but are not required to audition. It is recommended that you have studied your instrument for at least one year. Q3 If you have ever been paid to play your instrument, recently graduated with a degree in performance, or have been playing continuously since elementary school, you may decide we are not the appropriate group for you.

How We Work:

We know that New Yorkers are busy people. Q5 It is fine if you miss an entire rehearsal period when an emergency arises. Ultimately, though, too many absences disrupt the function of the group and make it difficult to perform the pieces. Sessions are in six-week rehearsal cycles, with two-hour rehearsals held once a week. We work with the goal of producing one to three very informal ‘friends-and-family’ concerts per year. 

Q4 NYSLO concerts are free to members’ families and friends. NOT GIVEN.

Our professional tutor/facilitator serves as coach and conductor during rehearsals. Substitute conductors also join in to teach different sections, providing groups of players with valuable experience in working with different approaches and styles. Everyone is encouraged to play to their fullest potential, whatever that may be, but please recognize that while we do have a conductor, her role is not to provide one-on-one instruction during rehearsals.

NYLSO is a self-supporting collective; we do not receive any other funding. The cost is $80 for each six-week cycle. Q6 Payments are applied to the costs of rehearsal space, conductor’s fees, and photocopying music.

Materials You Will Need At Rehearsals:

You will need an instrument, a portable music stand, and any other relevant accessories.You should bring a folder to keep your music together and a soft-lead pencil with an eraser for writing in changes. Sheet music is provided.

Q7 The NYLSO gives advice on what instrument to purchase. NOT GIVEN.

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