IELTS LISTENING – Hadley Park Community Gardens Project S8T2

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Hadley Park Community Gardens Project

Manager : Good morning. It’s great to see so many people here. Thank you all very much for coming. Well, as you know, the community gardens that Hadley Park are really not looking as good as they should. Quite bad, really and although the local council has a budget to deal with some of the problems, we do need volunteers for other tasks. If you don’t mind, I’m going to divide you into two groups. So everyone on this side of the room is Group A and the rest of you, are group B. So Group A there are a couple of things we’d like you to help. First of all, don’t worry about any litter or empty bottles you see lying about one off. The local schools has offered to help out with that as part of their own environmental project.

 
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Q11 The priority for you will be to give us a hand with the new wooden fencing it needs constructing along parts of the bicycle track as there are parts which have now fallen down or broken. As I’m sure you’ve seen, you probably also noticed that some of the pathways that come from the bicycle track are quite narrow, and there are plans to make them wider. But the council will be dealing with that later in the year and they’ve also promised to produce some informational signs about the plants in the gardens. Hopefully, they’ll be up in a few weeks time. The other thing Q12 we’re doing is getting rid of some of the foreign species that are growing in the gardens on putting back from native plants and trees. So you’ll be doing some digging for us and getting those into the ground. So Group A, there’s some items you’ll need to bring along with you. I was going to say raincoat, but the forecast has changed so you can leave those at home. I definitely recommend a strong pair of Q13 boots. Waterproof would be best. It’s quite muddy at the moment on your own. Q14 Gloves would also be advisable. Tools will be available, spades and hammers, that kind of thing. You just need to make sure they go back in the trucks and oh, there’s no need to worry about food and drink as well. Be supplying sandwiches and coffee possibly some biscuits.

Even Okay, Group B, your turn. Does everyone have a copy of the plan? Oh, great. Okay, we’ll all be meeting in the car park that’s on the bottom of the plan see. Now, if you’ve been assigned to the vegetable beds to get there, you go out of the car park and go up the footpath until you reach the circle of trees. Q15 There they are in the middle of the plan, and you see that the footpath goes all the way around them. Well, on the left hand side of that circular footpath, there’s a short track which takes you directly to the vegetable beds. You could see a bamboo fence mark just above them. All right. Okay. If you’re helping out with the bee hives, pay attention. Look again at the circle of trees in the middle of the plan and the footpath that goes around them. On the right side of that circle you can see that the footpath goes off in an easterly direction, heading towards the right hand side of the plan. And then the party splits into two and you can either go up or down. Q16 You want the path that heads down, and at the end of this, you see two areas divided by a bamboo fence. And as we’re looking at the plan, the bee hives are on the right of the fence. The smaller section, I mean, now, don’t worry. All these have been removed. You just need to transport the hives back to the car park. Okay for this eating, Q17 look at the circular footpath at the top of it. There’s a path that goes from there on takes you up to the seating area alongside the bicycle track. And, with a good view of the island, has suppose. Okay, if you’re volunteering for the adventure playground area, Q18 let’s start from the car park again and go up the footpath but then you want the first left hand. Go out there and then you see, there’s a short part that goes off to the right. Go down there. And that’s the adventure playground area above the bamboo fence. That fence does need repairing, I’m afraid. Right. What else? Oh, yes, the sand area. We’ve got that circular footpath in the middle. Q19 Find the track that goes east towards the right hand side of the plan. On where that track divides, you need the little path that goes up towards the bicycle track. The sand area is just above the bamboo fence there. And finally Q20 the pond area. So it’s on the left hand side of your plan towards the top, just above the fruit bushes, and to the left of the little path. Okay. As I said already, hopefully will be.

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IELTS LISTENING – Immunity and Immunization S39T4

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Immunity and Immunization

Lecturer :

Good afternoon, and thank you for your warm welcome. This will be the first talk in a series of five on health interventions, protection, and prevention. Could I start by asking for a show of hands? How many of you have had a flu vaccination at the beginning of winter? Ah, I thought so. You young ones always think you’re indestructible. Well, as you’ve no doubt aware, disease-spreading germs or pathogens are everywhere.

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On a daily basis, the human body has to ward off attacks by various harmful bacteria and viruses. A healthy body has a good defence system against many of these germs. But the defence only operates well against microorganisms that it has already encountered, in which case it is said to be immune.

There are two ways in which humans acquire natural immunity. Actively, when a person has first suffered and then recovered from an illness and passively when ready-made protection is transferred into the body, for example, from the maternal blood fire the umbilical cord to an unborn child or through breast milk. Now artificially acquired immunity can help the body to fight disease so we can use active immunization as a preventative measure. This is when a person is vaccinated against illness by injection or oral ingestion of a tiny amount of weakened or inactive germs not enough to actually cause him or her to contract the illness, but sufficient for the body’s defence system to recognize and respond to the threat by forming antibodies. Intervention using passive immunization, on the other hand, is a method of curing an illness after it is too late for prevention. It is less effective than active immunization and takes longer to work. It is used when the body has already been invaded by bacteria and the person is ill. In this case, there is no time for the body to make antibodies of its own. So proteins, usually taken from the blood of animals are injected to equip the patient with the essential antibodies to combat the particular illness. Let’s have a quick look at a bit of history. The discovery of vaccination to boost the body’s immune system by making it sensitive to particular disease-causing bacteria was made by an 18th-century English doctor cooled Edward Jenna.

He noticed that survivors of smallpox, a common but extremely dangerous disease, never contracted the disease a second time. In other words, they were immune. He studied a similar disease in cows called cowpox and realized that people in contact with the infected cows became ill with symptoms resembling smallpox. However, this disease was quite mild by comparison and those who contracted cowpox were then immune to smallpox.

He conducted an experiment by injecting a child with a small amount of pass taken from a cowpox postural. The child subsequently became ill, but soon recovered. Later, he injected the child with Puss from smallpox postural, and the child did not get sick. He had developed immunity to the more dangerous disease. The antibodies produced to fight the cowpox bacteria had been able to fight off the smallpox bacteria.

What are antibodies? Well, antibodies are made by white blood cells called B lymphocytes, and this is done in response to the presence of antigens or other bacterial toxins which have been released by the microorganisms. What we commonly refer to as germs that have invaded the body. These Y shaped antibodies. Or you can think of them as antitoxins may stop the toxins or repair the damage they have done by what is known as the antigen-antibody reaction, which takes place within the plasma of the blood. The correct antibody for that disease clings to a particular Auntie Jen. In order to render it harmless.

large numbers of these pears clumped together to form a bigger unit. This is called a hallucination and is able to be seen by the naked eye, which is very helpful for doctors and other specialists to determine which illnesses a patient is immune to. Inoculation or active vaccination can protect people from serious diseases.

The vaccine may make a person feel unwell for a few days when the immune system starts to produce antibodies to match the introduced Auntie Jen. This is called a primary reaction. If that particular Auntie Jen should ever enter the body again later, a secondary reaction takes place. The body is then able to produce large numbers of corresponding enter bodies within a short time, so the invading antigen are quickly wiped out without the person suffering any harm from the disease.

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IELTS LISTENING – New Caledonian Crow and The Use of Tools S12T4

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New Caledonian Crow and The Use of Tools

Lecturer : I’m going to talk today about research into a particular species of bird, the new Caledonian crow, whose natural habitat is small islands in the Pacific Ocean. And it seems that these crows are exceptionally resourceful. Using sticks or other tools to find food isn’t unknown among birds and animals. Some chimpanzees, for example, are known to bang nuts on stones in order to break the shell and get a the edible kernel inside. One new Caledonian crow called Betty, spent some straight wire into a Q31 hook and used it to lift a small bucket of her favorite food from a vertical pipe. This experiment was the first time she’d been presented with wire, which makes it very impressive.

 
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Another crow, called Barney, has demonstrated his skill at using sticks to forage for food. In one research project, scientists from New Zealand and Oxford set captive New Caledonian crows a three stage problem. If they wanted to extract food from a hole. The crows first had to pull up a Q32 string to get a short stick, then use that short stick to remove a long stick from a toolbox and finally used the long stick to reach the food. Amazingly, they worked out how to do this successfully.

Further experiments carried out at Oxford suggests that crows can also use sticks as tools to inspect all sorts of objects, possibly to assess whether or not they present a Q33 danger. The idea for the experiment came from observing the birds using tools to picket random objects, such as a picture of a spider that was printed on some cloth. In this research, five pairs of crows, including Barney, underwent tests to see how they would react to a variety of objects, which were carefully chosen so the birds wouldn’t be tempted to view them as a possible source of food.

As a further precaution, all the crows had been fed beforehand on eight occasions. A bird’s first contact was by using a tool In all three trials. Barney began by using a stick for inspection. One involved a Q34 rubber snake. First he approached it but didn’t touch it, then retreated to pick up a stick. He then prodded it with the stick. After some more investigation, he discarded the stick and carried on pecking at the snake more confidently, apparently convinced that it wouldn’t move. In other experiments two different birds called Pierre and Corbeau also made a first approach with tools. On three separate occasions, Pierre used a short piece of wood chip to touch a Q35 light which was flashing, and Corbeau was seen prodding a metal toad with a stick significantly the crows tender to use sticks only to make their first contact with the object. Subsequently, they either ignored the object or dropped the tool and pecked at the object, which is very different from using the tool to get access to food.

So what conclusions can be drawn from the research? Evidence is building up from experiments such as these that the birds are able to plan their actions in advance, which is very interesting for understanding their cognition. They don’t seem to be responding in a pre-programmed sort of way. It may even be possible that they’re able to view a problem and work out what the answer is. However, a major difficulty is assessing whether this tool using behavior is a sign of Q36 intelligence. To some extent, this is related to the ecological circumstances in which the animal is found. So scientists want to find out much more about how the crows behave in their native habitat. And a team from Exeter and Oxford University’s is carrying out research in New Caledonia. They’re looking into whether the birds way of searching for food gives them any possible evolutionary advantage.

The birds are hard to observe as they live in a region of mountainous forest, so the researchers have attached tiny cameras to the Q37 tails of some birds as one method of investigating their behavior. The birds are masters at using sticks to find their food in particular beetle larvae from the trees. It’s possible that the birds can derive so much Q38 energy from these grubs that they only need to eat a few each day. This would mean that they wouldn’t have to spend most of their waking time searching for food, as most animals do. The beetle larvae have a distinct Q39 chemical makeup, which can be traced through the feathers and blood of birds that eat them. Scientists have collected samples from crows in order to estimate the proportion of larvae in their Q40 diet, they should then be able to gauge the extent to which individual birds depend on using sticks to feed themselves. We have went a great deal about the ability of New Caledonian crows to use tools, and some very interesting research is being carried out into them.

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IELTS LISTENING – History of fireworks in Europe S11T4

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History of fireworks in Europe

Lecturer : An interesting aspect of fireworks is that their history tells us a lot about the changing roles of scientists and technicians in Europe by works were introduced from China in the 13th century, up to the 16th century. They were generally used for military purposes, with rockets and fire tubes being thrown at the enemy. But they were also sometimes the feature of plays and festivals where their chief purpose was related to Q31 religion. By the 17th century,

 
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the rulers of Europe had started using fireworks as a way of marking royal occasions. Technicians were employed to stage spectacular shows, which displayed aspects of Q32 nature with representations of the sun, snow and rain these shows were designed for the enjoyment of the nobility and to impress ordinary people. But fireworks also aroused the interest of scientists who started to think of new uses for them. After seeing one firework display where a model of a dragon was propelled along a rope by rockets. Scientists thought that in a similar way, humans might be able to achieve Q33 flight, a dream of many scientists. At the time other scientists, such as the chemist Robert Boyle, noticed how in displays one firework might actually light another, and it occurred to him that fireworks might provide an effective way of demonstrating how Q34 stars were formed.

Scientists at the time often depended on the royal courts for patronage, but there was considerable variation in the relationships between the courts and scientists in different countries. This was reflected in attitudes towards fireworks and the purposes for which they were used. In London in the middle of the 17th century, there was general distrust of fireworks among scientists, However, later in the century, scientists and technicians started to look at the Q35 practical purposes for which fireworks might be employed, such as using rockets to help sailors establish their position at sea. It was a different story in Russia, where the St Petersburg Academy of Science played a key role in creating fireworks displays for the court. Hear those in power regarded fireworks as being an important element in the Q36 education of the masses. On the displays often included a scientific message. Members of the academy hope that this might encourage the royal family to keep the academy open at a time when many in the government were considering closing it.

In Paris, the situation was different again. The Paris Academy of Sciences played no role in staging fireworks displays. Instead, the task fell to members of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. As in Russia, the work of the technicians who created the fireworks was given little attention. Instead, the fireworks and the spectacle they created were all designed to encourage the public to believe in the Supreme authority of the Q37 king. However, science was also enormously popular among the French nobility and fashionable society flocked to demonstrations such as Nicholas Liemery’s display representing an erupting volcano. The purpose of scientists was basically to offer Q38 entertainment too Fashionable Society and a cat emissions delighted in amazing audiences with demonstrations of the universal laws of nature. In the course of the 18th century, the circulation of skills and technical exchange lead to further developments. Fireworks specialists from Italy began to travel around Europe, staging displays for many of the European courts. The architect and stage designer Giovanni’s Servandoni composed grand displays in Paris featuring colorfully painted temples and triumphal arches. A fireworks display staged by Servandoni would be structured in the same way as an Q39 opera and was even divided into separate acts. Italian fireworks specialists were also invited to perform in London, said Petersburg and Moscow. As these specialists circulated around Europe, they sought to exploit the appeal of fireworks for a wider audience, including the growing middle classes. As in the previous century, fireworks provided resources for demonstrating scientific laws and theories, as well as new discoveries on displays now showed a fascinated public the curious phenomenon of Q40 electricity. By the mid 18th century, fireworks were being sold for private consumption. So the history of fireworks shows us the divers relationships which existed between scientists, technicians on the rest of society.

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